Were Greeks and Romans Caucasian
From Spartan times
From Spartan times
Period of time:
From Spartan times:
Reason for the discrepancy:
Due to a saying by the oracle of Delphi, the Spartans do not drive the tyrant Hippias out of Athens.
Brief information about the timeline:
The classical age of Greece did not yet dawn in the 6th century BC. The Greek world was once again in turmoil. Hippias the tyrant ruled Athens in 510 BC, together with his Thessalian allies the ruler believed himself safe. And he actually managed to stay in Athens this year. Because the Spartans decide not to go into the field against the Thessalians ... The history of the Greeks takes a different course. Today the concept of Attic democracy does not exist, but does the concept of democracy not exist at all?
|This is my 40th timeline (GGGane)|
Prehistory 527-510 BC Chr:
Tyrants and Spartans:
The history of Greece goes back a long time in the 6th century BC. The time to about 500 BC from 750 BC on is known as the Archaic Age. The city of Athens did not yet have a citizen democracy in 527 BC. The necessary reforms in UZL did not exist until around 510. Instead of the democracy we are familiar with, three tyrants ruled the city and that for about 50 years. (Peisistratos and his sons; Hippias and Hipparchus) This era of Greece and the form of government "Tyrannis" (tyranny) had developed in the 7th century BC. Established Chr. Many city-states in the Mediterranean region were under the rule of sole rulers. The Greeks had their settlement area not only in the area of today's Greece but also in Asia Minor, North Africa, the Crimea, Italy and up to the west in Spain. This Greek cultural area did not belong to a coherent world empire but was at least culturally united due to the sometimes very different people of the Greeks. One of the major military powers of that time was the Polis of Sparta. A city-state that was structured differently than other Greek states in some respects. On the one hand there was a double kingship of two rival kings, on the other hand the entire state was dependent on the strength of the military and the Spartians and was strongly religious.
Sparta was regarded as fanatically religious, Sparta drew its economic strength from the fact that a large part of the people was enslaved while a small bourgeoisie and nobility ruled the country's fate. There were roughly three types of Spartan inhabitants; Full citizens, these had acquired their rights through military service and were called Spartians. Spartians lived according to a warrior code, where other cities raised their armies as needed, they lived as full-time professional warriors. Another class of the population was thatPerioces. These were farmers and artisans who also participated in the Spartan military system but had no political rights. Periöks were free citizens of Sparta, were, like the Spartians, free men and belonged to the slave-owners of the Lacedonian state. The third and most important layer for the rise of Sparta were the helots, helots were the slaves of Sparta and as such could be recognized by everyone by their clothing. Among the Spartians there was a tradition for young men to murder helots in order to show the slaves that their lives hang by a thread and can be ended at any time. This Spartan corporate state often caused slave revolts in the course of history and was the reason why Sparta never remained more than a relevant military power in Greece. The Spartians fought in the later Persian Wars (500 - 479 BC) but always had to make sure to maintain order in their homeland through brutal armed force. This put a stop to the Spartan expansion. Since the culture of the Spartans was strongly militaristic and, from today's perspective, based on social Darwinism, in the recent past certain dictators have always found favor with their warrior culture. The discipline of the Spartians was the first US President George Washington as a model, within the US Marines they are also seen as great models without recognizing the actual oppression in Sparta. In the 6th century the so-called Peloponnesian League existed, this confederation of states, which was only called in modern times, comprised the friends of Sparta who were primarily directed primarily against Athens.
Hippias and Hipparchus:
In 527 BC the tyrant Peisistratos died in Athens, 34 years earlier Peisistratos had gained power through a coup d'état. Now his sons Hippias and Hippiarchos took over power at the Acropolis. The leading head of the tyrannical rule was Hippias who had to defend the regime against enemies from inside and outside. In 514 BC the murderers Harmodios and Aristogeiton carried out a successful assassination attempt on Hippiarchos. This assassination attempt was supposed to hit Hippias but failed him. The tyrant of Athens had many opponents, including the exiles Kleisthenes of Athens. Kleisthenes was known as a thinker and reformer, later the historian Herodotus referred to him as the father of democracy. The tyrant Hippias had a worthy opponent in Kleisthenes.The Thessalians, allied with Athens, were able to repel an attack by the Spartans thanks to their cavalry. Religion was an important means in the struggle of Kleisthenes of Athens against the tyrant. The oracle of Delphi was considered a religious authority; Prophecies from Delphi were taken very seriously. The very devout Spartans in particular were quickly seduced into something by religious oracles. It is probably that Kleisthenes bribed the oracle to bring it to a spell against Hippias. Sparta's king Cleomenes I could thus be persuaded in 510 BC to once again field the allies of Athens against Thessaly. In UZL the Spartans won, whereupon Hippias fled and stood as an advisor to the Persians against his people in the Persian Wars. The overthrow of the tyrant finally cleared the way for Kleisthenes who reformed Athens and thus created the basic principles of democracy. Only one year after the fall of Hippias, the last Roman king, Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, was overthrown in Rome. The Romans also trace their republic back to this time. But what if Hippias hadn't been overthrown? Here comes the corresponding timeline that begins with the year 510 BC.
510 BC - The oracle says:
“Cleomenes! Do not wander to Thessaly because the gods see no siege! Wander to Sparta ... wander at home because the order of things must endure! Victory and defeat lie behind the gods! Linger in Sparta or lose in Thessaly's bosom! "
The Sanctuary of Delphi plays an important role here. The place of worship was since the 8th century BC. Ascended to prestige and power. The oracle was a sanctuary of the sun god Apollo. That is why it was important to speak prophecies only on the birthday of the sun god. The birthday of this god was in the Greek month of Bysios, which according to today's calendar covers about mid-February to March. Influence on the oracle of the priesthood and the actual prophetic priestess the Pythia had always learned of the right. For Hippias war it has always been clear that having an influence on the Pythia would be better strategically. In the UZL they succeeded in belonging to Kleisthenes of Athens as the oracle, and in his spirit to induce the Spartan dual kingship to act against Thessaly and Hippias. But here things look different, the Thessalians were not without influence, influenced Hippias. The adversaries of Kleisthenes succeeded in handing over an increased amount of gold to Delphi. Thereupon the oracle spoke at the beginning of March 510 BC. A prophecy for the Spartan Cleomenes I. The oracle spoke this very clearly, because Hippias had very clear ideas about the high bribe, what Pythia had to say to Sparta. Therefore, cryptic words were not used. The Pythia proclaimed a defense of Sparta and was drawn into the field against Athens and its rights, because it is divine order that tyranny rule over Athens and there is a plan that only the gods themselves understand. Cleomenes, as a godly man, trusted the words of Pythia; so he belongs to his own allies, Kleisthenes. Kleomenes I. War a warrior, but also a politician. He needs that the Spartians are not allowed to be left with war for a long time, otherwise the order in the homeland is in danger of war. What exactly was in March 510 BC that the Spartans were going home again. The Spartan historiography also gives clues about the right events. This is mainly due to the fact that the Spartans do not record their history in writing and relate everything to purely phonetic traditions, it was known today. Cleomenes decision, after Sparta representation, had something to do with his fellow king Damaratusto do. Since the kings of Sparta rivaled, it is possible that Cleomenes in Sparta deposed his own position against his fellow king. Damaratos also repeatedly owns the friends of Athens, it was lost that Sparta would never take unified action against Athens. It is now expected as a legend that the Pythia warned the Spartans. Historians assume that this was more about domestic political moves and quarrels between the kings of Sparta than about prophecy. In popular historiography it is said otherwise that the oracle spoke and Sparta was seen. As a result, Hippias was determined.
510/500 BC - stalemate Sparta / Athens:Now that the tyrant Hippias was still at the helm of the Athens polis and Sparta decided to act less aggressively against him, a kind of ancient cold war broke out. Athens founded an alliance with Thessaly and Corinth. This union was directed against Sparta and the Peloponnesian League. This union was given the name "Tyrannenbund" by modern historians. Kleisthenes of Athens died in exile in 507 BC, the Greek tyrants sprouting from the ground for the time being. The Cold War between Sparta and Athens was basically a proxy war, as both sides recruited cities and warlords to fight for them. As before, Sparta and Athens installed rulers in Greek cities. The togetherness of the Spartans was overshadowed by the battle of the two kings. Kleomenes and Damaratos spun mutual intrigues which around 506 BC led to Cleomenes and his army not being able to take action against Corinth. Behind the scenes, an alliance between Hippias and Damatros had been developing for a long time. Co-king Damatros wanted sole power over Sparta, so he emulated the tyrants of Greece. Sparta's dual kingship was not as autocratic as one would think. Spartan kings were bound by the law, the state overseers; Ephors oversaw the actions of kings. So it was possible to banish a king from office if he got something wrong. This added another facet to the struggle for power. Foreign powers from the east, the Persian Empire (Achaemenid Empire), which ruled large parts of the Middle East such as Turkey and Egypt, had a say in the ancient Greek Cold War. The Greeks were a people who liked to stay to themselves and saw themselves and their achievements as the culmination of culture and civilization. The Persians were strangers, but Hippias knew that the great power Persia could simply attack the Greeks if they wanted. That is why there was a secret policy between Athens and the Persian great king Dareios I. Not only Athens' tyranny sympathized with the foreigner, Damaratus also calculated an advantage over his fellow king. In addition, there was soon a revolt of Greek cities in Asia Minor. The Ionians, who lived under Persian tribute, rebelled 500 BC. Chr and thus ensured strong patriotic feelings of the Greeks in their homeland. Many Greeks were now of the opinion that one had to stand by the Ionians against the foreigners. Ionia was in what is now Turkey and was therefore the settlement area of the ancient Greeks, and because philosophy was pursued at that time; “Where Greeks live is Greece”, the matter soon became an ordeal for the entire Hellenistic culture. The internal power struggle in Sparta and the rivalry with Athens came to a head, because it seemed that the tyrants were opposing their own people in order to underpin Persia's claims and ingratiate themselves with god-king Darius. This was the end of the stalemate.
509/475 BC - Rome and its republic:
"The people's statehood is flawed, but nothing is better! Or?"
Winston ChurchillIn the history of the world, the concept of democracy is not an achievement of Athens but of the Italian city of Rome. The term democracy (ancient Greek: δημοκρατία) is completely unknown even in the 21st century. Instead, what grew out of the oligarchic aristocratic form of government of the Romans was called the “people's state”. This state, the republic saw itself as a representative of the free citizens of Rome but primarily of the patriciate. Until Rome became a republic, the kings of the Etruscan people ruled. The Latins always felt that the rule of the Etruscan kings was foreign rule. The early history of the Roman Republic is steeped in legend, legendary consuls are said to have led wisely and guaranteed every citizen his rights. These original legends go back to the late period of the republic in the 1st century BC. In fact, as in the royal times, a handful of wealthy patricians ruled. The republic of the oligarchs was directed by the senate of the patricians, which already acted as privy council in the royal times. In the eyes of today's leaders, the Roman Republic is a shining example. The early republic primarily had to assert itself against the Etruscan people and thus against the powerful city-state of Veii. As a city-state similar to the Greek polis, Rome wanted to extend its power over the area of Latium to the tribal territories of the Latins. Much in the culture of the Romans has Greek influences, so the phalanx formation was used in the army. Roman warriors came from the ranks of the bourgeoisie and nobility, and they had to bring their own weapons and armor. One of the reasons the Romans became the fathers of the People's State was that every citizen was equal before the law. The rule of law Lex Romanum formed an important component of the Roman people's state. 12 tables of law based on the Greek model laid the constitutional foundation in the people's state, so there was at least the illusion of equality, but not freedom. Aequitas, the principle of compensatory justice, had a high priority in the state. Political parties did not yet exist, the voice of the common people of the plebeians was usually won through polemical speeches or gifts. Despite the "flawed" form of government of the Romans, people in Rome always saw themselves as morally superior to the tyrants of distant countries. Similar to a revolutionary republic, the growing Roman Empire wrote on its banner that it would never tolerate a royal rule in its own country. In choosing its allies, the republic did not care with whom it made pacts. The much-lauded equality before the law was largely perceived as an asset, given internal social class differences and the inequality of foreigners. In the early days of the republic, enemies quickly became federations, which were allowed to acquire full citizenship. So the city-state of Rome grew into a state that advertised with prosperity and justice for all. The republic had proven itself until 475 B.C. It is now partly assumed that at this point in time it already had many of its later institutions. Whenever the Romans saw Greece, they were always divided. On the one hand, one saw related souls in the cousins from Greece, but also strangers who, through their colonies in southern Italy, still represented thorns in the flesh of Italy. The Greeks, however, saw backworlders in the Romans.
499/479 BC - Persians and Greeks in conflict:The Persian Wars are a series of armed conflicts between the Greek city-states and the Persian Empire. In 499 BC the Ionian uprising in Asia Minor was suppressed, and the Greek colonies of Asia Minor were made subject to tribute again. In Greece one was largely incapable of acting because of the internal rifts. Spartan kings engaged in bitter intrigues. Darius I recognized the inner turmoil of Greece and sent troops to Thrace and Macedonia in 492 BC. These were supposed to make the cities there subject to tribute and punish them for their support of the Ionians. Dareios expects little resistance, especially not from the Athenians, whom he has already built up as potential allies against Sparta. Despite the Persian-Attic pact policy, King Cleomenes I intervened. This clash of the Greeks with Persia ended in the Battle of Marathon. However, Hippias the tyrant of Athens did not enter the war against the Greeks as requested by the Persian king Darius. Hippias knew that should he openly help the Persians against a Greek power he would likely be murdered by his own palace guard. Greeks against Greeks was one thing, but facing an arch enemy against your own people could only go wrong.The Attic tyrant therefore remained neutral, a neutrality that did not cost him the throne but made it incredibly unpopular. The fact that he did not support the Greeks at marathons cost Hippias a lot of support from the citizens of Athens. Now that he was already ailing, the aging tyrant had to rely a little more on the cooperation with the Attic people and sought a compromise. Even the Spartan fellow-king Damaratus could not openly oppose Cleomenes. The Spartans emerged from this conflict together with the cities of Thebes and Chalkis as protectors of the Greek world. After the victory in the First Persian War, Cleomenes felt so confident that he had his annoying fellow king murdered. Kleomenes put his half-brother Leonidas I on the trohn, a man who belonged to the family and was thoroughly loyal. This ensured the internal peace of Sparta, at least for the moment. The Persians did not continue the campaign afterwards because an uprising was looming in Egypt. 486 BC Darius died, his son took up the plans to subjugate Greece 6 years sp
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