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Normal blood sugar values: diabetics must pay attention to these blood sugar values

Blood sugar values ​​provide information about the amount of glucose in the blood. A measurement can be used to determine whether the blood sugar levels are normal, too high or too low.

Key facts at a glance

  • Blood sugar levels are influenced by individual parameters such as diet, activity level, insulin production and other factors such as stress.
  • Not only in diabetics do blood sugar levels fluctuate during the day, normal blood sugar levels in healthy people are also not always at the same level.
  • There are standard values ​​for blood sugar that can be used to determine whether the glucose metabolism is working or not.
  • Blood sugar values ​​are given in mg / dl or in mmol / l.
  • In healthy people, the normal fasting blood sugar value is between 70 and 99 mg / dl or between 3.9 and 5.5 mmol / l.
  • 1.5 to 2 hours after eating, the normal blood sugar value should be a maximum of 160 mg / dl or 8.9 mmol / l.
  • Values ​​of less than 70 mg / dl or below 3.9 mmol / l are referred to as hypoglycaemia.
  • One speaks of excessive blood sugar (hyperglycaemia) when the blood sugar values ​​rise to over 160 mg / dl or over 8.8 mmol / l.

Which blood sugar levels are normal?

Even the normal blood sugar levels of healthy people fluctuate over the course of the day: factors such as exercise, food intake, but also lack of sleep, stress and medication influence the sugar level in the blood. These fluctuations in blood sugar levels are normal and absolutely harmless. Nevertheless, there are normal values ​​for blood sugar that can be used to determine whether the sugar metabolism is working or not.

The following values ​​apply as the guideline of the German Diabetes Society (DDG) with regard to normal blood sugar levels:

Normal blood sugar levels on an empty stomach / before meals

  • in healthy people: 60–100 mg / dl or 3.3–5.5 mmol / l
  • if diabetes is suspected: 100–110 mg / dl or 5.5–6.1 mmol / l
  • if diabetes mellitus is diagnosed: over 110 mg / dl or 6.1 mmol / l

Normal blood sugar levels after eating (approx. 2 hours after meals)

  • in healthy people: 90–140 mg / dl or 5.0–7.8 mmol / l
  • if diabetes is suspected: 140–200 mg / dl or 7.8–11.1 mmol / l
  • if diabetes mellitus is diagnosed: over 200 mg / dl or 11.1 mmol / l

What happens if the normal blood sugar values ​​are exceeded or not reached in diabetes?

It is essential for diabetics to keep the blood sugar level as constant as possible. Due to the insulin deficiency in type 1 diabetes and the insulin resistance in type 2 diabetics, their blood sugar levels rise or fall much more quickly. Most diabetes patients check their blood sugar levels several times during the day in order to be able to react to fluctuations in good time with appropriately dosed insulin or other diabetes medication.

Low blood sugar (hypoglycaemia) when the sugar level is below normal

If there is a sharp drop in the blood sugar level or if it falls well below the normal blood sugar level, we speak of so-called hypoglycemia. Possible causes in diabetics are errors in the use of medication or longer exercise units in combination with too little food.

  • One speaks of hypoglycaemia from a value below 50 mg / dl (3.9 mmol / l).
  • With the help of the hormone adrenaline, which is released in case of hypoglycaemia, the organism tries to activate sugar reserves from the liver.
  • Signs of hypoglycaemia include palpitations, tremors, dizziness or increased sweating.
  • In order to compensate for the sharp drop below the normal blood sugar level as quickly as possible, diabetes patients should consume glucose. The glucose it contains can be absorbed particularly quickly by the body and quickly raises the sugar level to the normal level.

Hypoglycaemia (hyperglycaemia) and diabetic coma when blood sugar levels are exceeded

If the blood sugar level rises quickly and sharply above the normal blood sugar level, this is known as hyperglycaemia. This happens in the context of diabetes, for example, when the body has an increased need for insulin - this can be the case during an infection. A missed or insufficient insulin dose can also be the reason for hypoglycaemia.

Normal blood sugar in an empty state is between 50 and 110 mg / dl and should not exceed 140 mg / dl after eating.

  • Excessive blood sugar levels can cause symptoms such as tiredness, listlessness, poor concentration and dizziness.
  • In the worst case, they lead to a so-called diabetic coma in diabetics, which is accompanied by unconsciousness.
  • Blood sugar values ​​above 250 mg / dl indicate a high level of sugar (hyperglycemic derailment) or an incipient diabetic coma.
  • Symptoms include severe thirst, increased urination, nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain, as well as deep, heavy breathing and an odor of acetone in the breath and urine. This is caused by the excess sugar.