What is the Chinese word for language

Due to the coexistence with other, genetically unrelated languages ​​for thousands of years, Chinese and various Southeast and East Asian languages ​​have strongly influenced each other. These influences have had a particularly strong impact on Korea, Vietnam and Japan, where the Chinese script is also used and classical Chinese has been used as a written language for centuries.

There are not many words that have been taken directly from the Chinese language into German usage. Often the German pronunciation hardly corresponds to standard Chinese because the word was either taken from a Chinese dialect or from another language.

China:
The German country name China for the Middle Kingdom (中国 zhōngguó) came from the Latin Sina from the name of the Qin dynasties 秦 Qín (pronunciation: tchin).

Chop Suey:
The name of the Chinese dish, which actually originates from the gold rush times in California, comes from Cantonese and means broken everything 杂烩 záhuìi.

Dim Sum:
Dím Sām is the Cantonese pronunciation of 点心 diǎnxīn, small things to eat.

Feng Shui:
The name for the Chinese geomancy means wind 凤 fēng and water 水 shuǐ.

Kongfu:
功夫 gōngfu means great effort.

Qigong:
Literally “performance of / through Qi 气 qì”. It is understood as a practice system for movement meditation, based on the model of Qi (air, life force). Often seen in a context of 太极拳 tàijíquán (shadow box).

Tea:
The North Chinese pronunciation of the character 茶 is chá and was adopted by the Russians, Arabs and Japanese, among others. The pronunciation te from the Fujian province's Xiamen dialect has been adopted from most European languages.

Tofu:
豆腐 dòufu means something like bean curd.

Wok:
From Cantonese dwg. is a special Cantonese word, which is probably related to Mandarin 锅 guō (saucepan, frying pan).

Yin:
The female principle originally referred to the northern slope 阴 yīn of a mountain.

Yang:
The male principle originally referred to the southern slope 阳 yáng of a mountain.

Chinese itself also shows a large number of foreign influences. Some essential typological features of modern Chinese can probably be traced back to external influences, including the development of a tonal system, the abandonment of inherited morphological means of formation and the obligatory use of counting words. External influence is also evident in the inclusion of no fewer loanwords.

The number of loanwords in Chinese became particularly large during the Han dynasty, when words were also adopted from neighboring western and northwestern languages, for example 葡萄 pútao (grapes) from an Iranian language.

Due to the strong influence of Buddhism during the 1st millennium AD, a large number of Indian loanwords penetrated Chinese: 旃檀 zhāntán (sandalwood), 沙门 shāmén (Buddhist monk) from Sanskrit. The Mongolian rule of the Yuan Dynasty (1279-1368) left only a few loan words, for example 蘑菇 mógū (mushroom) from Mongolian.

In the 16th century, a strong European influence set in, which was also reflected in the Chinese vocabulary. During this time, Christian terms were borrowed from Chinese: 弥撒 mísa (mass) from the late Latin missa. Since the 19th century, names for achievements in European technology have also been adopted, although Chinese has proven to be much more resistant to borrowing than Japanese, for example. Examples are: 马达 mǎdá from the English motor, 幽默 yōumò from the English humor. In some cases, loanwords found their way into standard Chinese via dialects: e.g. 沙发 shāfā from the Shanghai dialect safa from the English sofa.

There are usually three ways that a term is translated from English to Chinese: 1. Basically; 2. half analogously and half phonetically, e.g. B. Mini skirt, 迷你裙 mínǐqún; 3. phonetically, e.g. B. Coca Cola, 可口可乐 kěkǒukělè. Nowadays many modern terms, especially the abbreviations, are taken directly from English, e.g. B. CEO, GDP, etc.