What is the definition of substance abuse

Drug addiction

Synonym: addiction syndrome
English: substance dependance, drug addiction

1 definition

As Drug addiction denotes the pathological desire for repeated consumption of psychotropic substances (drugs). A distinction is made between psychological (mental) and physical (physical) dependence.

see also:Drug abuse

2 classification according to ICD10

  • F10.2 Mental and behavioral disorders due to alcohol
  • F11.2 Mental and behavioral disorders due to opioids
  • F12.2 Mental and behavioral disorders due to cannabinoids
  • F13.2 Mental and behavioral disorders due to sedatives or hypnotics
  • F14.2 Mental and behavioral disorders due to cocaine
  • F15.2 Mental and behavioral disorders from other stimulants, including caffeine
  • F16.2 Mental and behavioral disorders due to hallucinogens
  • F17.2 Mental and behavioral disorders due to tobacco
  • F18.2 Mental and behavioral disorders due to volatile solvents
  • F19.2 Mental and behavioral disorders due to multiple substance use and consumption of other psychotropic substances

3 causes

3.1 Mental drug addiction

The human brain has a complex reward system, which is controlled, among other things, by the release of dopamine, adrenaline and endorphins. These neurotransmitters trigger stimulating, intoxicating or calming states in the body which, in the case of substance abuse, lead biochemically to a desire to take the substance again. Thus, the consumption of the substance is stored in the brain as a reward.

3.2 Physical drug addiction

In physical dependence, the body gets used to a certain substance level in the organism and makes the substance part of its normal metabolism. If this substance is missing, physical withdrawal symptoms occur.

4 drugs

Among others, the following substances can be used as drugs:

  • nicotine
  • alcohol
  • Dexamfetamine
  • Methylphenidate
  • Opioids] such as codeine, methadone, levomethadone, fentanyl, tramal, tilidine or heroin
  • caffeine
  • Solvent, e.g. mineral spirits
  • Prescription Anti-Obesity Drugs
  • Benzodiazepines
  • Biperiden
  • Plants containing atropine, e.g. thorn apple, angel's trumpet, deadly nightshade
  • Barbiturates
  • Propofol
  • Nitrous oxide
  • cocaine
  • cannabis
  • Synthetic cannabinoids e.g. Spice
  • "Bath salts" (i.e. amphetamine derivatives declared as bath salts)
  • amphetamine
  • Crack
  • Cath
  • Harmaline
  • LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide)
  • Kratom
  • Kawa-Kawa
  • Ketamine
  • MDMA
  • Ecstasy
  • Mescaline
  • PCP
  • Methamphetamine
  • Salvia divinorum
  • Psilocybin
  • Psilocin

5 withdrawal symptoms

6 therapy

6.1 Drug withdrawal

In the case of a physically existing drug addiction, inpatient drug withdrawal comes first. Here, the patient is monitored during withdrawal and, if necessary, treated with drugs against the withdrawal syndrome. Above all, seizures pose a risk to drug addicts and should only be treated within an inpatient setting, e.g. with rectal administration of diazepam and monitoring. The drug clonidine is used against the vegetative symptoms of withdrawal and to lower blood pressure.

6.2 Drug withdrawal

After physical withdrawal, the drug cessation phase begins. This usually lasts for months and is often characterized by relapses. During this period, those affected should be given intensive therapy, psychological support and, if possible, integrated into a "drug-free" environment in order to avoid drug relapse. The therapy offers include, for example: