What started operating systems

History and all about an operating system

Without an operating system in particular, the vast majority of the components of a computer do not offer us anything, as it is responsible for ensuring that the devices work and that any software can use the hardware necessary to run it. For this reason, when we buy a computer, we always have to check whether it includes the system or whether it needs to be purchased separately for later installation, as this way the device cannot turn on until it has a system.

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A short story…

Although we just said that the operating system is required in order to start the computer and run other programs, it is not the case on the first few computers. Computers originally didn't have an operating system, so every program that ran on the computer had to contain all of the code needed to run individually, connect to hardware, and so on.

This was a big problem in the development of an application or a program, so it was necessary to develop system software that made it easier to run programs and produced the first operating systems.

Although there was an attempt in that1950s was it really in1960 When IBM got down to business and the first version of the Unix operating system was born. A system programmed in C language that gradually adapted and found wide acceptance.

Later it was Microsoft who, at IBM's request, set about installing a system on its PCs. This amalgamation of two large computer companies led to the emergence of MS-DOS in the early 1980s, a system developed by Microsoft for IBM computers, which they have developed in their own way since Redmond. The system emerged in the 1990s when operating systems with a graphical user interface emerged and the first generations of Microsoft emerged, Windows began. Little by little, we've seen how Windows has evolved to this day, with Windows 10 being the latest version of the system.

For his part in themid 80sApple also developed its own system based on technology developed by NeXT until those from Cupertino bought the company in the late 1990s when the version of macOS for servers was released. Later, new versions were released for the desktop version until the current version was reached.

The history of Linux is written from the1990s after the Free Software Foundation was established in recent years and the GNU General Public License was developed. The large amount of software stored at the beginning of the 90s made it possible to develop a full operating system from the hand of Linus Torvalds, who started the project and later introduced Linux.

The operating systems for mobile devices, iOS, Android or Windows Phone are much more modern. Android is a mobile operating system developed by Google that is based on the Linux kernel and other open source software and was developed for mobile touchscreen devices such as cell phones and tablets. It was launched in2007 in connection with the establishment of the Open Handset Alliance.

This was also when iOS, Apple's mobile operating system, was first developed for the internet iPhone (iPhone OS) also took place, although we later saw how it was used in devices from other brands such as the iPad or iPod touch.

What is an operating system and what is it for?

That is, we could say that an operating system, operating system or also operating system (operating system ) is the software that is responsible for managing hardware resources and providing services for the other programs running on it. This is the system that always runs in privileged mode compared to the rest.

It is oneMediator between the user and the hardware . That is, every time a program is run on the computer, the system allows it to be opened, access to the hardware and peripheral resources necessary for its correct operation, and to allocate the amount of memory that will be used depending on its Needs. and the number of programs we have open on the computer.

In addition, it is responsible for providing services that facilitate the efficient execution and management of resources of all applications running on the system.

Nowadays there are generally operating systems with a graphical user interface. In this way, they allow for a much easier and more intuitive interaction with users. Its main function is to provide all the necessary tools to control our PC and use it in the most convenient and easy way.

But it is also responsible for controlling and managing access to computer resources, coordinating hardware, organizing files, controlling access to data and processing tasks, etc.

Parts of an operating system

An operating system consists of many parts, components or functions that can change depending on the type of system. However, the three parts of the system that are most defined and used by the vast majority of systems are:

  • Core or core : A software that is an integral part of the system. We could say that it is the heart of the system itself and hence its name. It is defined as the part that runs in privileged mode or kernel mode and that has primary responsibility for starting the system itself. It provides basic control over all of the computer's hardware components and their primary functions are reading and writing. Data in memory, processing processes, interpreting data, deciding what to program and how long to use a particular resource, etc. The kernel runs in an isolated area to prevent malicious software from tampering with it.
  • user interface : This is the part that allows the user to interact with the computer. This interface can be graphical, providing a desktop, windows, and graphic components for more intuitive interaction, or it can be done through a command line.
  • Device driver or driver : Software that allows the system to interact with any peripheral device. While not always required when using new hardware, it is recommended to use it to avoid problems, improve security, and improve the user experience.
  • File system : It is the component of the operating system that is responsible for allocating space to files, managing free space, and accessing protected data. It structures the information stored in the storage unit, and most systems maintain their own file system.

In addition, we could highlight other components of the operating system, such as: B. the protection system that is responsible for enforcing the use of protection mechanisms, determining the security controls to be carried out or determining differences between authorized and unauthorized use. The resource manager who is responsible for managing the running input and output devices, programs or processes, secondary storage or hard drives, and system resources in general. Communication system for controlling the sending and receiving of data via network interfaces, the main memory manager, who selects the processes to be loaded into memory when space is available, or the process manager, who is responsible for stopping, continuing, creating or deleting processes is

Types of operating systems

It is possible to classify operating systems differently, e.g. Depending on the computer or device they are running on or their processing capabilities. With that in mind, we can talk about operating systems that run:

  • computer : Systems like Windows itself, MacOS or Linux, which were specially developed for the administration and control of our computers.
  • mobile devices : are those specially developed for mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets (iOS and Android).
  • Integrated : Integrated Systems are those that are embedded in certain devices and prefer their function, printers, household appliances, etc.

Now we could also make a classification based on their skills when working on tasks or supporting different users:

  • Single user and single task : those who can only work on a single task by a single user at a time.
  • Single user multitasking : Operating systems that can multitask from a single user.
  • Multitasking and multi-user : Systems that can perform several tasks at the same time by different users.