How Do I Increase My ADHD Symptoms

Causes of ADHD in Children - A Parenting Failure?

Studies with methods of functional imaging (e.g. positron emission tomography) indicate the pathophysiological significance of a dopamine and noradrenaline deficiency.1 This observation fits in with the finding that dopaminergic and noradrenergic substances such as MPH and atomoxetine reduce the symptoms of ADHD by increasing the extracellular availability of these neurotransmitters. It is also known that cerebral networks, which are involved in the expression of ADHD-related deficits, are heavily innervated by dopaminergic and noradrenergic fibers. Medication has been shown to help normalize patterns of brain activity in such key areas for ADHD.2

The catecholamine hypothesis can also be reconciled with the observation that various gene polymorphisms occur in ADHD that affect the catecholamine functions, especially the functions of dopamine.

When interpreting the findings, however, it must be taken into account that neural systems are complex and plastic at the same time: A changed neurochemical response can be directly related to the causes of ADHD, it can be a consequence of ADHD or a marker for a more profound one represent neurobiological process. From today's perspective, given the complex interaction patterns between dopaminergic, noradrenergic and z. B. serotoninergic transmitter systems extremely difficult to define the exact pathophysiological role of an isolated system.3

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1 Spencer TJ, Biederman J, Madras BK et al. In vivo neuroreceptor imaging in attention- deficit / hyperactivity disorder: a focus on the dopamine transporter. Biol Psychiatry 2005; 57: 1293-1300
2 Bush G, Spencer TJ, Holmes J et al. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of methylphenidate and placebo in attention -‐ deficit / hyperactivity disorder during the multisource interference task. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2008; 65: 102-11
3 Sonuga -‐ Barke E. In: Banaschewski T, Coghill D, Danckaerts M, Döpfner M, Rohde L, Sergeant JA, Sonuga -‐ Barke EJS, Taylor E, Zuddas A. ADHD and Hyperkinetic Disorder. Chapter: Pathogenesis. Oxford University Press