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Information for international education marketing. Country profiles. India.

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1 Country Profiles Information for International Education Marketing India

2 I Country Profile India I Editorial / Contents I 03 Imprint Publisher GATE-Germany Consortium for International University Marketing GATE-Germany office: Kennedyallee 50, Bonn Project coordination Pia Klein, Judith Lesch, Katharina Mutz Expert advice Heike Mock, Christiane Schlottmann Verlag Frankfurter Societäts-Medien GmbH Frankenallee 71 81, 6037 Frankfurt Editing Janet Schayan (responsible), Johannes Göbel, Oliver Sefrin Art Direction Anke Stache Cover photo Adrian Pope / Photographer s Choice Print Courir Print Media GmbH, Bonn Edition editorial deadline November 011 DAAD reprint, also in part, only with express Approval and indication of source permitted. The DAAD attaches great importance to a language that takes women and men equally into account. In this publication, however, there are not consistently gender-equitable formulations, as the explicit mention of both forms in some texts makes it difficult to read. Issues published so far in the PDF country profiles online laenderprofile.gate-germany.de Your experts in India DAAD branch New Delhi German Academic Exchange Service, Nyaya Marg, Chanakyapuri New Delhi Telephone: / newdelhi.daad.de Contact person in New Delhi: Christiane Schlottmann, Branch Manager Apoorv Mahendru, Marketing Officer DAAD Information Center Chennai c / o Max Mueller Bhavan 4, Rutland Gate 5th Street Chennai Telephone: ic.daad.de/chennai DAAD Information Center Pune c / o Max Mueller Bhavan 14/3 - B, Boat Club Road Pune Telephone: (extension: 14) newdelhi.daad.de DAAD Information Point Mumbai c / o UHDE India Limited Raj Plaza, Ground Floor, A Wing Opp. Karmastambh LBS Marg, Vikhroli (W) Mumbai Telephone: DAAD Information Point Bangalore c / o German Consulate General Corner St. Mark s Road & Residency Road Bangalore German Research Foundation (DFG), DFG Office India Dr. Torsten Fischer, Head, Nyaya Marg, Chanakyapuri New Delhi Tel: Your experts in Germany DAAD Kennedyallee 50, Bonn Department South Asia Heike Mock Tel: GATE-Germany Consortium for International University Marketing Office at the DAAD Dr. Irene Jansen Tel: Section Information for Foreigners on Germany as a Location for Education and Research, Campaigns Dr. Ursula Egyptien Gad Tel: Department for International University Fairs, Marketing Services for Universities Dorothea Neumann Tel: Research Marketing Department Anke Sobieraj Tel: International DAAD Academy (ida) Dr. Gabriele Althoff Tel: HRK Ahrstraße 39, Bonn Division North America, United Kingdom, Ireland, Scandinavia, Turkey, South Asia Dr. Gordon Bölling Tel .: Unit GATE-Germany: Studies and Evaluation Ulrike Koch Tel: Editorial Dear Readers, 60 years of diplomatic relations have linked India and Germany. On this occasion, the Deutschlandjahr Germany and India: Infinite Opportunities in seven Indian megacities shows how intensive and future-oriented the exchange between the two countries is. This also applies to cooperation in research and higher education. India wants to catch up with the leading scientific nations and is increasingly focusing on the qualification of broad sections of the population. The third largest education market in the world has enormous potential for German universities, says Professor Joybrato Mukherjee, designated Vice President of the DAAD with opportunities and risks for German partners. The country profiles offer a wealth of background information that can be useful for initiating new collaborations, exporting educational offers and recruiting international students. With this issue, the tried and tested series of publications by the GATE-Germany university consortium has a new editorial design and a fresh look. Contents At a glance India Facts and figures, university and educational data 04 Voices Indian-German encounters Opinions and assessments 06 Politics and society The new self-confidence The Indian middle class wants to help shape the country on its way into the future 08 Partners in a global world A look on the political relations between Germany and India 11 Answers to urban questions of the future The Germany year 011/01 also offers a forum for science 1 University and research On the way to the top India's research landscape is developing rapidly 14 The third largest education market in the world continues to expand The Indian University landscape between shortage of young talent and new approaches 18 A New Passage to India The DAAD promotes India competence 0 But how do you cooperate with Indian universities? Tips for finding a university partner in India 1 We want to work together on an equal footing. Torsten Fischer from the DFG on the new German Science and Innovation House Eight good examples of German-Indian research collaborations in portrait 4 Economy Land of contrasts India is full of dynamism and offers great potential for German economy 8 The other view Learning from India Büchner Prize winner Martin Mosebach on ever docile barbarians and eternally cultivated wise men 30 International marketing for education and research in Germany is supported by grants from the BMBF to the DAAD Enjoy reading! In focus German and German-Indian institutions Map of academic relations 31 Imprint 0

3 04 I At a Glance I Country Profile India II Country Profile India I At a Glance I 05 At a Glance Delhi Jaipur Ahmedabad Raipur Kolkata Mumbai Hyderabad Bangalore Chennai Trivandrum India is the third largest education market in the world High spending on education Education is the third largest expenditure item in an average Indian household. Almost 55 percent of middle class households save for the higher education of their children. Routine output in percent: Students enrolled in place 1 0.5% China ... 5.35 million USA ... 17.76 million India ... 13.64 million Russia ... 9.37 million Brazil ... 4.57 million politics Tan sp India, with 1.1 billion inhabitants, is the largest parliamentary education in the world. After independence from Great Britain in 1947, Essen achieved a 51.1% separation of powers between the legislature, the executive and the judiciary. The constitutional parliamentary chamber system of Lok Sabha (lower house) and Rajya Sabha (upper house) entered into force. Democratic and desolate capital New Delhi (Delhi: 18.6 million inhabitants, 009) ral republic. According to the currency Indian rupee (IN R) (1 IN R = 100 Paise), 1 = approx. 60 IN R tion of the congress party, whose chairman is Sonia Gandhi, the coalition of the United Progressive Alliance (UPA) is newly constituted. Head of government is in second per capita income 586 euros p.a. (13th place in the Human Development Index) Term of office Dr. Manmohan 4, 4.7% 7% Source: Ernst & Young / FICCI, 010 USA Great Britain Australia Canada New Zealand 7.97 Russia 4.86 Germany, Source: OECD, Education at a Glance 011 Most popular subject groups last five years. Engineering mathematics / natural sciences, law, 609 economics, social sciences According to data from Life expectancy 63.7 years for men, 66.9 years for women in office, government education expenditure 3.78% of GDP (008/9) ** in India about Higher education landscape Universities and colleges: 504; Colleges: (009/10) *** Germans and in German- Studying in Germany Indian students in Germany Singh. The legislative period Religious groups Hindus 80.5%, Muslims 13.4%, Christians, 3%, Sikhs 1.9%, other 1.9% (Census 001) Sources: imove market study, May 011, * Census of India 011, * * Dep. of Higher Education / India, *** Ernst & Young / FICCI: New realities, new possibilities: The changing face of Indian higher education, 010 dheit Around Indians study abroad. 009 has a population of 1.1 billion (011) population density 38 inhabitants / sqkm * Demographic structure 0 14 years: 30.1%; Years: 64.6%; > 64 years: 5.3% (estimates 010) en r 5% of the last parliamentary elections land area qkm birth rate, 8 in 008 (, 64 in 1998) un hn chsworthiness India currently has 4.85 students * (1.00 women), 6 percent of foreign students in Germany and is therefore in 11th place (China in 1st place with 88 students) * foreign students WS 010/11, source: destatis WS 010/11, source: destatis link land ca Indians. Lists with names and addresses of Indian universities as of: September 011 the University Grants Comission provides on its website:> Inside HE Kharidehal Abhirama Ashwin / Shutterstock.com Illiteracy rate 34% (men: 3.1%, women: 45.5%, 007) sung it is a secular, where the most popular host countries of Indian students, 9% 9, 8% languages ​​are official languages ​​(such as Hindi, Marathi, Bengali, Telugu, Urdu, Tamil); Commercial language: English according to its official name and form of government in January 1950 Republic of India, federal republic with 8 union states and 7 union territories Important cities Mumbai (1.3 million), Kolkata (15.4 million), Chennai (7.3 million .), Bangalore (6.6 million), Hyderabad (6.3 million), Ahmedabad (5.3 million) So n India Ges Source: Ernst & Young / FICCI, 010 and 6 used the principle of India % 7.4

4 German-Indian encounters Joybrato Mukherjee It is extremely gratifying that the number of successful collaborations between German and Indian universities and research institutions is continuously increasing. The rapidly expanding Indian higher education system, which is often influenced by Anglophone, offers enormous potential for German universities; The extraordinarily heterogeneous Indian university landscape harbors both opportunities and risks for German partners. Against this background, German-Indian university partnerships are to be understood as a strategic instrument for the further institutional development of one's own university, which, if used successfully, not only opens up a new market, but also builds bridges to one of the most fascinating knowledge societies and cultural nations. Prof. Dr. Joybrato Mukherjee, President of the Justus Liebig University Giessen and Vice President-designate of the DAAD JLU press office / Franz Möller Birgit Weller The program, A New Passage to India offers the fantastic opportunity for an intensive student and graduate exchange between the design department of the Hanover University of Applied Sciences and the National Institute of Design (NID) in Ahmedabad, one of the best design schools in India. The exchange is a great journey of discovery for both sides, which gives a deeper insight into the multifaceted culture of the countries. India is a great masala of contrasts and can only be understood with the help of friends. The outstanding experiences and results form the basis for the development of a German-Indian joint degree master’s offer on the topic of Universal Design Thinking, which will start in 01. Prof. Birgit Weller, Department of Media, University of Applied Sciences Hannover Privat Saurabh ray My thesis supervisor during my Bachelor degree course in India advised me to study in Germany. He and some other faculty members had been to the Max Planck Institute for Computer Science in Saarbrücken before. The chance of doing good work is higher in an environment like MPI than at other top universities in the world. You have access to an extraordinary number and variety of researchers. One of the mistakes I made was that I didn t learn German properly. I always thought I may not stay here for too long so why invest in learning German? And now I've been here for eight years I think students should make the effort to learn the language as early as possible. It has a lot of impact on their social life. Saurabh Ray, PhD student at the Max Planck Institute for Computer Science in Saarbrücken Bertram Somieski / MPI for Computer Science I Country Profile India I Voices I 07 Padma rao German readers are primarily interested in exotic topics in India such as the caste system or the fate of widows in conservative parts of the country. Progressive, urban Indians find this one-sided interest frustrating. Nevertheless, and above all because of the rapidly growing economic relations, Germany and India are much closer today than ever before. Traveling to Germany and India without prejudice and the willingness to get involved in all aspects of a foreign culture is the only way to get to know each other better. Padma Rao, office manager and South Asia correspondent of the news magazine Der Spiegel in New Delhi Private John Chacko Since 006 the Indian automobile market has risen from 1st place worldwide to 6th place. 018 experts even see India as the third largest automobile market in the world. Against this background, India will play a very important role in the global growth strategy of the Volkswagen Group. This also means that the German-Indian trade and exchange of information will continue to increase. For these challenges in the dynamic Indian automotive market, we will also have a strong need in the coming years for highly trained specialists who have a strong global focus and flexibility. Dr. John Chacko, Volkswagen Group Chief Representative India, President & Managing Director, Volkswagen India Private Limited VW Ravi Ahuja Study exchange and research cooperation between Germany and India flourish in a climate of relaxed normalcy, at least in the natural sciences. There is a lot of catching up to do in the humanities and social sciences. The Göttingen Center for Modern Indian Studies helps to develop equal cooperation with excellent Indian partners and at the same time to establish transcontinental comparative and interdependent perspectives in German humanities and social science seminars. Private Prof. Dr. Ravi Ahuja, head of the research group Modern Indian History at the Center for Modern Indian Studies at the University of Göttingen Rita Eggstein Deepthaa Sampath kumar Germany is one of the front runners in renewable energy. It has the best technology in this field and offers a high standard of education. Although the standard maintained for the master program is really challenging, tuition fees are lower here than anywhere else in the world. German students were very helpful in guiding me through the paperwork required for residence permit. The learning culture is quite different from back home. In India, the emphasis is on learning by heart. Here the culture is to apply what we have learned in case studies and projects which helps in understanding the concept. Deepthaa Sampath Kumar, master's student at the Center for Renewable Energies at the University of Freiburg

5 08 I Politics and Society I Country Profile India I I Country Profile India I Politics and Society I 09 Politics and Society Background The new self-confidence India has become an important player on the international stage. The middle class is increasingly demanding to help shape the country on its way into the future and is turning against the reform backlog. by Jochen Buchsteiner Johann Rousselot / laif I n the summer of 011 the Indians were amazed at themselves. Anna Hazare, a 74-year-old man, was fasting in front of a giant Gandhi poster in a capital park, and Delhi's youth celebrated him as a cult figure. Loud dance music came from the cars that drove in parades through the old avenues and mingled with the battle cries of that summer: I am Anna and Anna is India. It remains to be seen whether the summer of 011 actually ushered in India's second war of independence, as Hazare immodestly apostrophized his mission. But in the mass protests against state corruption, the new self-image of the Indian middle class was clearly articulated for the first time. The summer of 011 probably marks the biggest turning point in 0 years. Until 1991, India had been largely self-absorbed. The focus was on building a democracy that was shaped by the socialist ideals of the independence hero Nehrus. Pressed into a political middle position by the bloc confrontation of the Cold War, India oriented itself politically towards the west and economically towards the east bloc. While one state after another in the world economy opened up in Pacific Asia at the end of the 1970s, even communist China finally opened up, while in India the fall of the Berlin Wall needed an offense. When Manmohan Singh, who was Finance Minister at the time, launched economic liberalization in 1991, India was lagging behind in many ways. The permanent conflict with Pakistan had a society with political

6 10 I Politics and society I Country profile India I

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8 14 I University and research I Country profile India I I Country profile India I University and research I 15 University and research Picture-Alliance / dpa Science relations On the way to the top India has the ambition to take a firm place within the leading science nations.The rapid development of research and highly qualified scientists make the country an exciting partner for Germany. von Sven titz India is dynamic, and not just with a view to the growth of the economy in the country with a population of 1 billion. India aims to become a superpower of knowledge within the next decade. The successes in research fields such as space research, information technology or nuclear energy research have long been internationally recognized. The quality is also continuously increasing in other areas of science. The high level of Indian research is exemplified by two major international projects: India is participating in the development of the ITER fusion reactor in France and, along with 14 other nations, is involved in the expansion of the GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research in Darmstadt into an international accelerator center for research Ions and Antiproton Radiation (FAIR). The cooperation of German scientists and German research institutions with Indian partners has been close for years: A study by the Research Council UK from 010 shows that Germany

9 16 I University and research I Country profile India II Country profile India I University and research I According to the UK-India Education and Research Initiative 008, foreign education providers cooperate with Indian institutions Indian patent applications were registered by WIPO, the World Intellectual Property Organization in Geneva, for the Year 009. Germany came up with patent applications. Author Dr. Sven Titz, science author from Berlin, writes for various daily newspapers and magazines. an initiative of the DFG and the Indian Ministry of Research, which aims at institutional partnerships. In terms of content, application-oriented computer algorithms are the focus. Five to ten projects are in prospect. The cooperation is intended to complement the DFG priority program Algorithm Engineering, which has been running since 007. In addition, the DFG has set up two German-Indian Graduate Schools (see p. 5). In addition, she is setting up the German Science and Innovation House in New Delhi together with the DAAD (see p.). Great Indian competence at the DAAD and Humboldt The DAAD, present in India since 1960, is currently promoting several cooperation programs with Indian partner institutions such as the DAAD / IIT master's sandwich program or project-related personal exchange programs (PPP) aimed at doctoral students, postdocs, University professors and scientists contact. In 010 the DAAD supported 160 German scientists and university lecturers and 840 German students and graduates. Conversely, 0 Indian scientists and university lecturers and Indian students and graduates with a DAAD scholarship were in Germany. Overall, Indians study in Germany (WS 009/10) and thus almost four times as many as ten years ago. According to estimates, there are only about 400 Germans studying in India. For this reason, too, the DAAD started the A New Passage to India initiative in 009 (see p. 0). The main aim is to attract more German students and graduates from all disciplines to study or research in India. The association of leading German technical universities (TU9) has set up its own student exchange with the IITs. Individual German universities have long been active in India: some, such as the Free University of Berlin, the Universities of Göttingen, Heidelberg and Cologne, have even opened their own contact offices in India. Others, such as the Technical University of Munich or RWTH Aachen University, will in future be represented in the German Science and Innovation House in New Delhi. The Alexander von Humboldt Foundation primarily offers scholarships and research awards to Indian scientists. Most Indian candidates are natural scientists and engineers, only five percent are humanities and social scientists, says Asia consultant Dr. Judith Schildt. The foundation's very active alumni have founded 16 associations in India. The Indo-German symposia for engineers (see p. 4) of the Humboldt Foundation are also very popular. The new international climate protection scholarship for young executives from emerging and developing countries who deal with the topic of climate protection and resource protection is particularly pioneering. Cooperation between research organizations All major German science organizations are continuously expanding their contacts in the South Asian state. For the Max Planck Society (MPG), India is already one of the most important cooperation countries. In 010, the MPG had 616 Indian junior and visiting scientists at its institutes, making it the largest group after the Chinese scientists. Twelve research groups at Max Planck Institutes have partner teams in India, and at the International Max Planck Research Schools (IMPRS), Indian participants regularly make up one of the largest groups. In September 011 the German-Indian Max Planck Center on Lipid Research opened the second such collaboration between the MPG and India. The researchers are exploring the role of fats in cells, cell membranes and whole organisms. The main partners are the Dresden Max Planck Institute for Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics and the National Center of Biological Sciences in Bangalore. In India, the Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft not only works as usual with companies in the automotive industry (see p. 4), but also maintains an exchange with high-ranking industrial organizations such as the Confederation of Indian Industries and the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research. Germany's largest scientific organization, the Helmholtz Association of German Research Centers, is involved in many areas in India. The Indo-German Science Center on Infectious Diseases is an important project (see p. 6). In addition, the German Electron Synchrotron (DESY) of the Helmholtz Association in Hamburg and the Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics in Kolkata decided to cooperate in June 011. The Leibniz Association has also turned its gaze to India. There are currently 14 ongoing collaborations with universities or non-university research and service institutions in India. The Institute for Asian Studies (in the Leibniz Institute for Global and Regional Studies) in Hamburg has a high level of competence in the area of ​​political, economic and social development in the country. In the future there will also be annual symposia for young scientists, which will take place alternately in Germany and India. India, the up-and-coming research country, and Germany, the land of ideas - they still have a lot to say to each other. Franziska roscher's private encounters with the real India patience, said my professor and grinned at me, visibly amused. Patience is the first lesson you will learn here. Then the rest is much easier! He was supposed to be right: if I learned one thing in my first year in India, it was to take the Indian chaos with a great deal of calm and patience. And there was enough chaos at the beginning of my studies in Mumbai: the struggle with the Indian bureaucracy, for example, which did not want my German degree to be recognized, or the days of rain during the monsoons, which virtually paralyzed traffic and public life; and the lack of organization at the university, where a semester can be six weeks longer than originally planned. Studying at the University of Mumbai is far removed from German planning security. Nevertheless, I have never regretted my decision to come here for the master’s degree in Politics: There’s no better opportunity to get to know India as an up-and-coming economic and global power. In the master’s course, I study the history and politics of India for two years, from Nehru and independence to current education and health policy. And outside of university I can meet the real India, whether at lunch with my fellow students or at street parties. I made a conscious decision to study at the state university in order to gain a piece of real Indian experience. Many of my fellow students come from small villages and underprivileged families. I am the only foreigner on the faculty and was a curiosity for many at first. It went so far that some of them brought their siblings and friends to the university to introduce me. I will probably never get rid of the exotic status entirely, but after the first few weeks I was accepted and integrated. What is lacking in planning and organization in the department, both lecturers and fellow students have made up for with friendliness, helpfulness and support. Living and studying in India is sometimes difficult, often unfamiliar and always full of surprises. Those who accept the challenge can experience the adventure of a lifetime here. After graduating from high school in 005, Franziska Roscher completed a four-year training course at the Cologne School of Journalism in Saarland. In 010 she completed a bachelor's degree in economics at the University of Cologne. Since 2010 she has been studying at the University of Mumbai with a DAAD scholarship as part of the A New Passage to India program. The goal is a master's degree in political science 01. Private Vikas Shabadi Only three and a half hours away 19 August 011 marks the successful completion of my first year in Germany and it has been a wonderful journey so far. The DAAD WISE Fellowship in 009 provided me an excellent opportunity to pursue a summer research internship in Germany. This was my first association with the Technische Universität Darmstadt. With this prior association, my supervisor Professor Lambert Alff graciously accepted me for a PhD program and now here I am pursuing cutting edge research in the fields of spintronics and oxide nano electronics. Being in Germany, I m only 3.5 hours behind India in time and this helps me stay better connected to the developments there. Also the opportunity to add a new language to my skill set is always worthwhile. In addition, several other factors such as state-of-the-art research facilities, world-renowned universities and ample funding opportunities led me to Germany. As a PhD student, one would always aspire to have a flexible study plan and the freedom to carry out independent research. These expectations were well satisfied by my supervisor who always supports creativity and innovation. However, there is still room for betterment of interaction of German institutions with other leading universities of the world to improve the mobility of young researchers. Since 010 I have held an honorary position as a DAAD Young Ambassador to promote German universities among fellow students in India. My activities include presenting talks at universities, participation at student conferences and events, writing articles for news papers and magazines etc. Through this, I get to share experiences with thousands of students and develop several useful networks. As a result, I have a busy, yet extremely interesting life in Germany. I really like German practices of being systematic, punctual and ordered. Usually nothing around you seems to go wrong. Initial weeks as a foreigner can be intimidating until you understand how transport, shopping, accommodation and food work. However, I believe that having lived in India, you always develop this unique street-smartness that enables you to survive in any part of the world. Hence, I never found any difficulty in adjusting to the lifestyle here. Surviving the German winter is an exception. Vikas Shabadi from Bangalore is currently doing his doctorate with a DAAD scholarship in the Materials Science Department at TU Darmstadt. He did his bachelor's degree in 010 at the National Institute of Technology Karnataka in India. Vikas blogs at

10 18 I University and research I Country profile India I I Country profile India I University and research I 19 University landscape The third largest education market in the world continues to expand Rising enrollment numbers and stagnating reform processes: The admission of foreign universities remains controversial in India, but cooperation is welcome. Sharp increase in enrolled students (in millions) 5.9% * 3.6 8.4 13.6 from Christiane Schlottmann Institutions in the higher education sector say India counts more than the USA or China.In terms of the number of enrolled students, India is the third largest education market after China and the USA with 13.64 million. Author Christiane Schlottmann has headed the DAAD branch in New Delhi since 008. The branch has existed since 1960 and currently has 11 employees. With 13.6 million students, 504 universities and colleges (university year 009/010), India is already the third largest education market in the world after China and the USA. The gross enrollment ratio (GER), the enrollment rate, was 1.4 percent in 009/010 and, according to the government's target, should increase to 30 percent by 00. That would mean: 40 to 45 million students, up to universities, up to colleges. The government will not be able to carry out this expansion with state funds alone. Education Minister Kapil Sibal therefore tirelessly appeals to the private sector to support the government in this immense task. Indian higher education has suffered from government underfunding for decades. The budget allocated for the higher education sector is increasing continuously and in some cases considerably. In the eleventh five-year plan (007 01) it was even nine-fold compared to the tenth. But the share of expenditures for higher education in the gross domestic product has remained the same for years and is a meager 0.66 percent. The share of total expenditure on education is 3.7 percent. The 6 percent share demanded by experts for the entire education sector and 1.5 percent for the higher education sector is still a long way off. The fact that higher education has nevertheless been expanded in recent years is due not least to the growing investment by the private sector: every second student in India now attends a private university. Financing models However, the quality of education at many private universities leaves something to be desired. But there are also a number of good and very good institutions among them. Some of the best universities in India ever have been founded by great entrepreneurs. The Tata family in particular has made a name for itself here. Three renowned universities and two excellent research institutes can be traced back to the founding of Tata. Other entrepreneurs have followed suit or plan to do so. Private universities in India are only allowed to operate as not-for-profit institutions. However, it is believed that quite a few make substantial profits in a legal gray area. In a study by PricewaterhouseCoopers from 010, the proposal was made for the first time that private universities should also be admitted on a for-profit basis in the future. This model could attract more investors, stimulate competition in favor of quality, legalize previously illegal profits and provide the state with additional tax revenue. Kapil Sibal was silent on this subject for a long time. Only at the beginning of October 011 did he take a position in an interview: I don t think it is the right time yet to let, for-profit institutions in higher education operate in India. I am not saying such institutions would never be allowed in the future. But as for now, I can say the time is not right. Kapil Sibal's preferred financing model remains the public-private partnership (PPP) model, for which the education minister tirelessly promotes at home and abroad, especially in the USA. With the establishment of 0 new Indian Institutes of Information Technology (IIITs) based on the PPP model, he now wants to implement the first pilot project. Shortage of young academics Even greater than the financial challenge posed by the expansion of higher education is the personnel challenge. Already today, 40 to 50 percent of the academic positions at universities have not been filled, and there is no sufficient number of young academics in sight. The Indian government is quite helpless in the face of this situation. There is no personnel development concept, the initiatives of the Ministry of Education are limited to singular measures that at best alleviate the blatant shortage of personnel. For example, since 2010 some of the leading universities such as the IIITs and the Indian Institutes of Management (IIMs) have been able to increase the salaries of their professors from third-party funds. In addition, funding for Masters and PhD scholarships at the Indian Institute of Science (IISc), Indian Institutes of Science Education and Research (IISERs), National Institutes of Technology (NITs), and IIITs increased by 33 percent to make a Master's or PhD degree more attractive. The range of integrated Master’s PhD courses is also to be expanded in order to lead more students to a PhD degree. The reform process initiated by Kapil Sibal in 009 has stalled in many areas. None of the legislative reforms that are particularly relevant to the higher education sector have passed parliament. In particular, the Foreign Educational Institutions Bill, which is intended to regulate the admission and operation of foreign universities in India, has led to heated discussions. The arguments of the critics go round in circles: The university system, which is already heavily commercialized, will continue to be commercialized; the westernization of Indian higher education is being promoted; the higher salaries offered by foreign universities attract staff from Indian universities. Kapil Sibal used to counter the critics: Indian students abroad lost 10 to 1 billion US dollars annually to the Indian economy. According to estimates, this loss could be reduced by around 75 percent if foreign universities came to India. In addition, the admission of foreign universities in India would increase the number of study places, promote competition and thus contribute to an increase in the quality of education as a whole. It is currently questionable whether the law will receive the required majority in parliament. Also, the international response to the planned opening of the Indian education market has so far not been quite as hoped for by Kapil Sibal. Only a few foreign universities have so far announced their intention to open their own campus in India. New cooperative approaches Against the background of these developments, Kapil Sibal does not seem to move away from his Foreign Educational Institutions Bill, but he is more likely than before to rely on the cooperative approach. In a conversation with his colleague Dr. At the end of May 011 in New Delhi, he submitted the proposal to Annette Schavan to found a consortium of German and Indian universities to jointly carry out double degree programs in the master's and PhD fields. Such a project has not yet existed with any other country. It would be absolutely revolutionary in the Indian university landscape. * average annual growth Source: FICCI / MHRD: Annual Report Stefan Volk / laif

11 0 I University and research I Country profile India I Dedicated intermediaries: the crew of the Indian DAAD Young Ambassadors for 011/01. FH Hannover Funding A New Passage to India Germany needs more academics with Indian skills. That is the basic idea behind the DAAD program A New Passage to India. It provides funding lines for German universities, university teachers and students. by heike Mock Prospective product designers from the Hanover University of Applied Sciences and the National Institute of Design in Ahmedabad working on a joint project in India. Since 009, thanks to support from the DAAD, 4 German and Indian students and eight graduates have been able to study at the partner university for several months. Together they build up a field of competence on the topic of Universal Design Thinking. Author Heike Mock is head of the South Asia department in the German Academic Exchange Service. Started in 009 with funds from the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), the A New Passage to India (ANPtI) initiative primarily aims to bring India to the fore as a study and research location for young German researchers. It wants to give more students the opportunity to gain professional and cultural experience in India. This takes into account the growing economic and scientific importance of India. The mobility of students and graduates, internships and the establishment of German-Indian research centers are promoted in three different funding lines. For this purpose, the BMBF has provided the DAAD with funds totaling 3.1 million euros per year for the years 009 to 01. Diverse project profiles Funding line 1 offers German universities the opportunity to promote the mobility of their students within the framework of existing German-Indian university partnerships. So far, 46 university collaborations have been supported, which enabled more than 700 German and 50 Indian students and graduates to study or research at the respective partner university between 009 and 011. The variety of projects ranged from cross-faculty exchange programs to specific project work by German-Indian student tandems. Some collaborations have meanwhile resulted in concrete plans for joint courses, such as the project between the Hanover University of Applied Sciences and the National Institute of Design in Ahmedabad or the project between the Berlin School of Economics and Law and the Alliance Business School in Bangalore. The tandem project between the University of Wuppertal and Delhi University was particularly successful, in which students from both universities worked together on the translation of a literary work from Hindi into German. All funded projects are characterized by good supervision at the partner university and the recognition of the academic achievements. The realization of internship projects is the aim of the funding line. As part of the Land und Wirtschaft program, German university graduates get to know the Indian world of work during a three to nine month company internship. In advance you will be prepared for your stay in a course lasting several weeks, in which you will acquire knowledge of Indian history and culture as well as Hindi skills. Internships for Indian students Indian students from selected Indian universities, including the Indian Institutes of Technology (IIT), can apply for a two to three-month laboratory internship in the field of natural and engineering sciences in the Working Internship in Science and Technology WISE program. This first, intensive acquaintance with the German university and research landscape brings many people back to Germany for further study visits; often to their host university. Since October 010, funding line 3 has been funding the establishment of a center for modern Indian studies at the University of Cologne, the University of Göttingen and the University of Würzburg. The centers are to bundle and expand the competencies already available at the universities for an interdisciplinary training of students who are interested in India. In addition to student and doctoral exchange measures, the establishment of visiting professorships for Indian scientists and the implementation of international conferences are planned. The Indo-German Center for Sustainability Research at the IIT Madras in Chennai (Indo-German Center for Sustainability IGCS) was also opened in 2010 (see page 6). The A New Passage to India initiative has given the mobility of young German researchers a remarkable boost in a short period of time. This is also shown by the DAAD statistics: In 008 there were 431 Germans who were funded, in 010 there were more than twice as many with 1,000 who were funded. DAAD New Delhi Cooperate with Indian universities - but how? The third largest education market in the world is highly competitive internationally, but the quantitative and qualitative potential that this market has to offer is far from being exhausted. For a long time, foreign universities were primarily interested in recruiting the brilliant Indian minds individually, but now they are increasingly interested in cooperating with Indian universities on an institutional level. Here, too, there is now tough international competition that German universities seeking partnerships with Indian universities have to face. What should be considered when looking for a university partner in India? Universities such as the Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs), the Indian Institutes of Management (IIMs), the Indian Institutes of Science Education and Research (IISERs), but also the National Institutes of Technology (NITs) enjoy a very good international reputation and are very popular as a partner. Among the full universities, it is above all the Central Universities such as the University of Delhi, Jawaharlal Nehru University and University of Hyderabad that are highly sought after by foreign universities. But lesser-known institutions can also be attractive for a partnership. In such cases, however, one should proceed with caution. It is essential to ensure that the potential partner institution is state-recognized or accredited. The University Grants Commission (UGC) and the All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) are the competent authorities here. State recognition or accreditation also plays a decisive role in any funding applications. You should take enough time to get to know your potential partner better, especially with less known institutions. Funding for a fact finding mission can be requested from the DAAD. When selecting the partner university, it should also be noted that in the traditional Indian science system, the task of teaching was assigned to the universities and that of research to the research institutions and that this system has only recently been in a state of upheaval. Many Indian universities are therefore still primarily teaching institutions today, where little research is carried out. If you want to initiate a cooperation with a focus on research, you should carefully check whether and to what extent research is actually being carried out at the potential partner university. Almost all Indian universities are very interested in cooperation in the field of student and lecturer exchange. Since the subject of brain drain is extremely virulent for Indian universities, one reacts very sensitively to anything that could point in this direction. Cooperation offers therefore only have a chance if they take account of the win-win principle and this is clearly emphasized from the start. In addition to the classic forms of exchange, interest in joint Master’s and PhD programs with double degrees will increase significantly in the future. So far there are hardly any offers in India and there seems to be a lot of catching up to do. Everything indicates that a new market segment will open up here in which German universities could position themselves well. Last but not least, the important question: How should you best approach a potential partner institution? Top down or bottom up? As hierarchical structures are very pronounced in India, the top-down strategy is usually recommended. But also for India it is of course true that cooperation is only sustainable if the right partners come together at the working level. The golden mean has therefore proven to be to initiate cooperation at the working level (department, department), but to have this sealed by the university management of both partners. Author Apoorv Mahendru is marketing officer at the DAAD branch in New Delhi. newdelhi.daad.de

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