How is a photon an elementary particle

photon

What is special about the photon is and how this fundamental particle is created you can find out here.

Definitely watch this Video to the photon. All relevant information is prepared audiovisually for you.

Photon explained simply

Photons () are Elementary particles. They are massless and always move with them Speed ​​of Light. According to the current state of knowledge, the Quantum mechanics For Photons the best explanatory model. It is true for everyone Elementary particles. Therefore, one shows up with these Wave-particle dualism. That means they have properties of waves and particles.

in the Videoto Elementary particles you will learn everything important about Particle zoo. It also explains the important fundamental forces to you.

What are photons?

Light is the realm of electromagnetic spectrum that you can see with your naked eye. Occasionally be with light too electromagnetic waves with bigger ones Wavelengthssuch as infrared light, or shorter Wavelengthssuch as ultraviolet light. This light is in the Quantum physics as a stream of Quantum objects described. These Quantum objects are the Photons

Photons () are the carrier particles of the Electromagneticinteraction. So they represent light, but also all others electromagneticwaves and wear the electromagneticforce. Through the Quantum electrodynamics will that photon as so-called Boson described, a Elementary particleswhose properties make it distinctly different from those of one Electrons or similar particles. In most cases they are Bosons always also carrier particles for a force like that electromagnetic, strong and weak force.

The Quantum electrodynamics is an area of Quantum mechanicswhich is the classic Electrodynamics to the modern Quantum mechanics adapts. One of its most important characteristics is the lack of bulk. In addition, there are energyas well as pulseproportional to his frequency

Photon properties

Photons are massless, electricneutral and stableElementary particles. It is the carrier particle of the electromagneticinteraction and is not subject to that Pauliprinciple

electric charge0, neutral
Dimensions0 kg
Spin1
Interactionselectromagnetic
Gravity

Photon mass

According to the current state of knowledge, a photon be massless. If it had mass, then it would Photons not with the Speed ​​of Light () move. As a result, the Speed ​​of Light no longer the speed of light but a theoretical limit of the speed that an object is in Spacetime could achieve. In addition, the speed of the photon would depend on it frequency and many laws of nature like that Coulomblaw, received additional factors. Many modern devices would then work differently or not at all.

It has been experimentally proven that the photonmassless is.

Photon energy

Photons move in vacuum with the Speed ​​of Light. So you need that theory of relativityto determine its energy. You get this via the relativistic connection between mass, energy and momentum.

This formula says for the energy, for the impulse, for the crowd and for the speed of light. You put a, you get a proportionality between momentum and energy for the energy

Since that photon a Quant is, you push its speed and thus the momentum over its frequency or wavelength off. This gives you a connection between the frequency and the energy.

This formula says for the frequency of the photon, is its angular frequency, the Planck quantum of action, is this reduced Planck quantum of action and the wavelength of the photon.

Photon pulse

As mentioned earlier, the theory of relativity the pulse with the energy. This is for that photon of importance as this deals with Speed ​​of Light, so moved relativistically.

You expand

With so you get

Here is the wavenumber.

Photon creation

Photons are produced in many ways. Most often you observe the creation of Photons at the transitions from Electrons on others Energy states. That happens when, for example, a electron in the Electron shellone Atomis stimulated to a higher level. This level is unstable and that electron jumps back to its original state after a short time. But the higher level had more energy than the original. This excess of energy is in the form of a Photons submitted. But also in the case of nuclear transitions Photons in the form of Gamma radiation are emitted or, in the case of particle-antiparticle, annihilation reactions. With the right measuring tool, you can determine the presence of such photons.

The Gamma radiation is another case of photon generation. Definitely look at this Videoat.

Entangled photons

Photons can regarding your polarizationor their direction of flight be entangled. The polarization gives you information about the direction of oscillation of the electromagneticwave. That is, if you measure them polarization one of these particles is known as one polarization of the other.

With the destruction radiation, i.e. the radiation that arises when Antiparticle and Particle meet each other, entangled Photons. These two Photons are in their direction as well polarization crossed. In medicine, this property is used in positron emission tomography (PET).

Photon application

Photons are used in many areas. One of the most widespread and also most important applications here is the laser

Definitely look at this about the laser Videoat. In it you will learn how the photons are generated and used.

Separate Photons can be determined by various methods. One of the oldest methods is to use a Photomultiplier. This uses the Photoelectriceffect out. A photon with enough energy hits a metal plate. There it knocks an electron out of its bond, which, through subsequent build-ups, triggers a cascade effect.