Peranakan Malaysians are considered bumiputras

Bumiputera (Malaysia)

Term describing various communities designated as indigenous in Malaysia

Bumiputera or Bumiputra (Jawi: بوميڤوترا) is a term used in Malaysia to describe Malays, the Orang Asli of the Malaysian Peninsula, and various indigenous peoples of East Malaysia (see official definition below). The term is sometimes controversial and is used in a similar way in the Malay world as it is in Indonesia and Brunei.

The term is derived from Sanskrit, which later became the classic Malay word Bhumiputra [Sanskrit "भूमिपुत्र"], which can literally be translated as "son of the land" or "son of the soil". In Indonesia this term is known as "Pribumi".

In the 1970s, the Malaysian government implemented measures aimed at promoting bumiputras (including positive action in public education and the public sector) to create opportunity and defuse interethnic tensions following the May 13, 1969 incident. [1] Originally intended as a temporary measure, these guidelines are still in force and have been described as racially discriminatory. [2] Although policies have succeeded in creating a significant urban Malay and indigenous middle class, they have been less effective in eradicating poverty in rural communities. [3] [4]

Official definition

The concept of a Bumiputra ethnic group in Malaysia was coined by Abdul Razak Hussein. It recognized the Malaysian constitution for the "special position" of the Malays, in particular Article 153. However, the constitution does not use the term bumiputra. it only defines "Malay" and "indigenous peoples" (Article 160 (2)), [5] "Natives" of Sarawak (161A (6) (a)), [6] and "natives" of Sabah (Article 161A (6) (b)). [6] The Definitions of Bumiputra in public use vary between different institutions, organizations, and government departments and agencies.

In the book Buku Panduan Kemasukan ke Institusi Pengajian Tinggi Awam, Program Pengajian Lepasan SPM / Setaraf Sesi Akademik 2007/2008 (Guide to Entry into Public Universities for SPM / Equivalent Graduates for the 2007/2008 Academic Year), the Malaysian Ministry of Higher Education defines Bumiputra as follows, depending on the region of origin of each applicant: [7]

  1. Peninsula Malaysia
    • "If one of the parents is Muslim Malay / Orang Asli [8] is as stated in Article 160, Paragraph 2 of the Federal Constitution of Malaysia, the child is considered a Bumiputra. "
  2. Sabah
    • "If the child was born in Sabah or the father was resident in Sabah at the time of birth and one of the parents is from Sabah as specified in Article 161A (6) (b) of the Federal Constitution of Malaysia; the child is considered a Bumiputra"
  3. Sarawak
    • "If both parents are native Sarawak people, as stated in Article 161A (6) (a) Federal Constitution of Malaysia, their child is considered a Bumiputra."

In addition to the interpretation given above, a broader definition of Bumiputra includes groups such as Native Indonesians, Malaysian Siamese, Muslim Indian Malaysians, Peranakan, and the Kristang of Portuguese-Eurasian descent. [9] Most of these include pre-British colonial churches established in Southeast Asia and, in large part, from China