What are the most famous French poets

Portal for the student. Self preparation

Condemned apostates who seek destruction, rebel against order, morality, religion, suffer from ignorance, tormented by the feeling of the downfall of an era and civilization. They sought salvation from a mental crisis of self-irony, saw the charm of despair and the beauty of decline. Having elevated beauty to the absolute, they found it even in ugliness. Baudelaire's heirs and predecessors of the Symbolists, French copywriters of the last third of the 19th century - they went down in the history of world literature as the "damned poets".

Nobody actually cursed them. The damned poets are not a school of poetry, or a creative association, or a literary era. This is the title of a cycle of essays by Paul Verlaine on contemporary poets. The cycle initially comprised three articles - on Tristan Corbiere, Arthur Rimbaud and Stephen Mallarmé. A few years later - in 1888 - the book was reprinted and also contained articles on Marceline Debord-Valmor, Villiers de Lisle-Adam and Verlaine himself. The author described himself as Poor Lilian (Pauvre Lelian). The name of the cycle of essays became a household name - other French poets of the years 1870-1890 were also called the damned poets. In the course of time the list of the "damned" was added to with names such as Charles Cros, Maurice Rollina, Jean Rishpin, Jules Laforgue and Germain Nouveau.

The creativity of the damned poets falls in the last third of the 19th century - a time of decadence. Neither is decadence a literary school. This is a crisis in European culture
late 19th - early 20th century. A time marked by decadent moods (in fact, the word decadence translated from French itself means decline), disappointment with what is generally accepted
values, rejection of positive teachings in art. The tragic feeling of the “end of the century”, the broken wormhole of unrest, the outcast and the longing longing of the spirit unite the great French copywriters of the late 19th century. At the same time, almost all of the damned poets, with the exception of Jules Laforgue, avoided the circle of decadents. In contrast to the decadents who slipped into "decadence" and glorified their blues, the mood of the cursed poets was not limited to a statement about their split. They tried to overcome this unrest, outcast and mental crisis. And it was this search for a way out, this unwillingness to come to terms with the depressing state, the desire to overcome painful torments, to rise above the imperfections of the world and to ensure this tragic intensity, thanks to which the works of damned poets become one became permanent property of French literature.

Paul Verlaine

Paul Verlaine had baptized himself and his clerks with the "accursed poets" and saw himself as a "sinful great martyr and trembling singer". He described himself as "Poor Lillian" in his famous series of essays. Verlaine, the oldest and most gifted of the "damned poets", struggled in both life and work with the swamp of blues and vices that attracted him. Indeed, his entire creative legacy can be compared to a sentimental diary of Book to book describes the trials of his weak soul, his back and forth between sensuality and religiosity, between the abyss of sin and the thirst for purity. Paul Verlaine was weak-willed and greedy for the temptations of the "green snake", the "red lights" and other no less forbidden things. He struggled with his own nature all his life and dragged him into the muck of the truck. The poet could not be happy and lead a pious, righteous life - respectable civil consolation is unbearable for him, he does not love his wife, the ideals of civil society are alien and incomprehensible to him. At the same time he burns with shame, sinks to the bottom of society - spends time in taverns, brothels and walks with his younger friend Rimbaud, who became his lover. This conflict, which was constantly smoldering inside, resulted in fits of anger when he shot Rambo, beat his wife, and chased his mother down the street. Lax throwing had a detrimental effect on the life of the poet, but it became the main subject of his work and, to some extent, a constant source of his inspiration.

"I am the Roman world of the time of decline" - the poet once said of himself. Verlaine's poetry reflects the blues and spiritual discord that have haunted him all his life. The sad, drooping, lost Verlaine publicly announces the heavy cross that fate has thrown on him, the debauchery, drunkenness and decay he describes - a kind of self-crucifixion committed for the sake of insight.

It is worth noting that Verlaine is one of the most musical poets in France, genuinely melodic, devoid of passion and intensity. His poetry is so melodic that sometimes the sad witch melodicity of poems pushes the semantic abundance of the work into the background.

just let the word lie
it's healthy too
a piece of music from which everything is there

Paul Verlaine does not paint or tell. His poetry is more of a blurry bitmap drawing, a sketch that gives the reader the right mood. The poet's two best main books are Songs Without Words (1874) and Wisdom (published in 1880 but mostly written five or six years earlier).

Arthur Rimbaud

Arthur Rimbaud

The teenage poet Arthur Rimbaud, a rebel and a vagabond, devoted only 4-5 years of his life to creativity. It was enough him that this stubborn and rude youth from the city of Charleville in the Ardennes entered the history of world literature as the legendary forerunners of all revolutionary avant-garde artists of the coming century. Rimbaud is unmistakable, impetuous, cheeky - in many ways a supporter of Baudelaire. Like Baudelaire, the young Rimbaud does not like the vulgarity of the bourgeois world. But unlike most of Baudelaire's successors, he does not limit himself to uncovering the imperfections of reality, but tries to find another reality, real and alien, that has to be found. The search for this reality, which Arthur Rimbaud could not find in his work, was probably the most daring attempt to reach the centuries-old foundations of French poetry. Rimbaud as a poet made himself known at the age of 16 when his first poem was published. Then there was a trip to northern France and southern Belgium, a bohemian life in Paris, where he lived with Verlaine, Charles Cros, Theodore Banville and hiked in Europe with Verlaine. Rimbaud was 19 years old when Verlaine shot him in the wrist during an argument. Arthur Rimbaud then returned to his mother on the Roche farm ... He was a teacher, soldier, merchant and seafarer. But never studied poetry again.

All of Arthur Rimbaud's works are permeated with unrest, the poet feels like a stranger in the bourgeois Philistine world, he demands everything in a sedentary, philistine manner. At first he tries to imitate Verlaine, Hugo, Baudelaire, but immediately brings something of his own to the poetry - his syllable is impetuously fresh and free, he is eager and cynical, mocking and violently blasphemous, his images are unexpectedly dazzling, marking, penetrating. Arthur Rimbaud's best work is considered to be the poem "The Drunken Ship" - a lyrical myth confession about a wonderful adventure odyssey. A ship without orders with torn sails and torn steering wheel races past wonders and dangers. The poem is open to a variety of interpretations and interpretations. Saturated colorful sketches, a scattering of metaphors, astonishingly unexpected images - the seventeen-year-old poet demonstrated the skills of a mature author. In his search for freedom and experimentation, Artur Rimbaud comes to Vers Libre. It is believed that the first French free verse was written by him - this is a poem called "Across the Sea".

Silver and copper carts

Steel and silver handles


Weed beds are cut.

Wasteland currents

And deep grooves at low tide

Circulate east

Towards the pillars of the forest

Towards the trunks of the pier,

Where the sharp edge touches the light cascades.

His prose poems were also written in the form of free verse - "Season in Hell" and "Illumination"

Charles Cros

Sparkling and caustic Charles Cross author of only two volumes of poetry "Sandal Box" (1873) and the posthumous "Necklace of Claws" (1908). In his lifetime, Cro was better known as the inventor of the phonograph and researcher of sound waves, but his time was seen by his contemporaries as something frivolous, a kind of "indulgence with the pen". However, the works of Charles Cros, collected in two small collections, prove that he was not a casual lover. Under the guise of an easy writer of trifles and epigrams, there was a subtle sense of the era, an attentive and empathetic poet. Cro's ironic, teasing, sometimes caustic smile is just a screen he uses to try to hide the aching melancholy and sometimes horror from the oppressive, suffocating routine. Even when this fragile defense falls under the onslaught of a merciless reality, the poet finds the strength not to sink into tearful laments, he is reluctant. He makes a painful confession in the form of an uncomplicated song, hides his fear of love behind a graceful hint of rejection, restlessness, which is characteristic of all "damned", he says casually in passing and often covers it with a bitter, mean smile. The tragic dignity of Charles Cros underscores the amalgamation of the semantic and stylistic diversity of his works.

Tristan Corbière

Tristan Corbière

Tristan Corbière's poetry is an explosive mixture of merciless burlesque puns, blasphemous prayers, caustic sarcasm, raw and uncomplicated simplicity. Death with a smile, tears with laughter, tenderness with pain, irony with despair - angular, passionate, painful works by him are without exception tragic. Like all his "cursed" pen pals, Corbière feels like an outsider who is wrongly rejected at a bad and ugly festival - this is how the poet sees the bourgeois world around him. And the poet is not inclined to embellish an unpleasant reality, in the On the contrary, he is a denouncer, dery brings the reader the rough, naked truth. As the son of a sailor and a person living by the sea, he refutes the wonderful legends of enthusiastic travelers in the poem "People of the Sea" and speaks about the legacy of a sailor. Corbière describes the city in his poem Paris by Day and speaks of ulcers, dandruff and ugliness.

The god of cooking gives out the maggots on duty,

In them spice is love, spicy spice is sweat.

All the rabble will crowd around the fire

The drunkards are in a hurry to sit down and drink,

The rotten meat is boiling and attracting the face

The poet handled not only the word, but also the classical rules of versification fairly freely and experimented with rhythm, syntax, slang interruptions and enumerations. He became the author of only one book - "Yellow Love" (1873).

Jules Laforgue

The clown with a sad smile, Jules Laforgue, was the only one of the "accursed poets" who stuck to the decadents. Laforgue's poetry is hopeless and painfully sad. Why rejoice when the poet is sure that any business is doomed to fail? According to Laforgue, in a situation like this one can only make fun of one's inferiority and try to hide it behind a clownish grin. Hence the mask self-portrait of a sad clown, which appears in two of his lifelong collections - "Lamentations" (1885) and "Imitation of Our Lady of the Moon" (1885) and posthumously - "Flowers of Good Will" (1900) and "Sobs of the Earth "- flashes (1901)

Despite his utter discouragement from life, Laforgue was not afraid to look for new solutions in poetics. He was also one of the bravest experimenters. It was this sad clown who died of tuberculosis at the age of 27 and became the first French poet to seriously take up the development of French free verse. Jules Laforgue translated the American founder of vers libre Walt Whitman, who made a great impression on him. However, Laforgue woven his Vers Libre into its usual sizes. Paul Verlaine, who invented the formula for the "accursed poets," failed to see this in Laforgue's Decadent, but his descendants corrected his mistake.

Stephen Mallarmé

Stephen Mallarmé initially joined the Parnassians and later became one of the leaders of the Symbolists. The poet learned his skills from the Parnassians and considered the Parnassian Banville to be his teacher. But for his demeanor, like all "damn poets", Mallarmé owes Baudelaire. In contrast to the repentant sinner of Verlaine or the hot-blooded rebel Rimbaud, Mallarmé is neither a prosecutor nor a revolutionary. He is a patient, meticulous viewer who searches for the immutable root of things and chooses words to point it out to the reader. The poet checked every letter to achieve perfection and to bring the texts of the end of the century to the limit of completeness. Mallarmé crystallized in his poems the moods of decadence and discontent that were scattered in the air of France, of indolent melancholy and denial of any participation in what was happening, of a thirst for something different, unknown but real. He tried to understand the crossroads of the French poetry of those years and to understand what goals they lead to. Stephen Mallarmé approached his work so carefully that all of his creative legacy, which took his whole life to create, fit into one little book - Poems and Prose, 1893. And all his life he wrote the book - his most important, most perfect who should have taken into account the results of his many years of careful work. “Everything in the world exists in order to finally be embodied in the book” - that was Stephen Mallarmé's motto. A book - mythical, hard-won, perfect, it was never meant to be written. Mallarmé's contribution to the development of French poetry is by no means less - he introduced his own style into the French texts, which did not disappear without a trace, but became the basis for the growth of the poets of the next century. And his striving for the ideal absolute was taken up by future generations.

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French literature is one of the treasures of world culture. It deserves to be read in all countries and at all ages. The problems that French writers have raised in their works have always troubled people and there will never be a time when they leave the reader indifferent. Epochs, historical entourage, costumes of characters change, but passions, the essence of relationships between men and women, their happiness and suffering remain unchanged. The tradition of the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries was continued by modern French writers, literati of the 20th century.

Similarities between Russian and French literary schools

What do we know about European language masters in the recent past? Certainly, many countries have made a significant contribution to the common cultural heritage. Great books have been written by the UK, Germany, Austria and Spain, but when it comes to the number of outstanding works, Russian and French writers undoubtedly come first. The list of them (both books and authors) is really huge. It is not surprising that the editions are diverse, there are many readers today, in the age of the Internet, the list of film adaptations is also impressive. What is the secret of this popularity? Both Russia and France have long-standing humanistic traditions. As a rule, at the top of the plot is not a historical event, no matter how outstanding it may be, but a person with their passions, merits, shortcomings and even weaknesses and vices. The author does not undertake to judge his characters, but leaves it to the reader to draw conclusions about which fate to choose. He even feels sorry for those who chose the wrong path. There are many examples.

How Flaubert felt sorry for his Madame Bovary

Gustave Flaubert was born in Rouen on December 12, 1821. The monotony of provincial life was familiar to him from childhood, and in his mature years he seldom left his city, having made only one long trip to the east (Algeria, Tunisia) and, of course, visiting Paris. This French poet and writer wrote poems that many critics then (today there is such an opinion) seemed too melancholy and indolent. In 1857 he wrote the novel Madame Bovary, which gained scandalous fame at the time. The story of a woman who wanted to break out of the hateful cycle of everyday life and therefore cheated on her husband seemed not only controversial, but even indecent.

Unfortunately, this act is quite common in life and is carried out by the great master far beyond the scope of the usual obscene anecdote. Flaubert tries with great success to penetrate the psychology of his characters, for whom he sometimes feels anger, expressed in merciless satire, but more often - pity. His heroine tragically dies, the despised and loving husband, apparently (this is more likely to be guessed than indicated in the text) knows about everything, but sincerely mourns and mourns the unfaithful wife. Both Flaubert and other French writers of the 19th century devoted a whole series of works to questions of loyalty and love.


With the light hand of many writers, he is almost considered the founder of romantic eroticism in literature. This opinion is based on a few moments in his work which, by 19th century standards, contain immodest descriptions of scenes of an intimate nature. From an art criticism perspective today, these episodes look quite decent and are generally justified by the plot. Moreover, this is not the main thing in the novels, stories and stories of this wonderful writer. The first important place is again occupied by human relationships and personal traits such as depravity, the ability to love, to forgive, and just to be happy. Like other famous French writers, Maupassant studies the human soul and identifies the necessary conditions for his freedom. He is tormented by the hypocrisy of "public opinion" created precisely by those who are by no means impeccable themselves, but rather impose their ideas on decency on everyone.

For example, in the story "Zolotar" he describes the story of the touching love of a French soldier for a black woman in the colony. His happiness did not take place, his relatives did not understand his feelings and were afraid of the possible condemnation of his neighbors.

Interesting are the writer's aphorisms about war, which he compares to a shipwreck and which should be avoided by all world leaders with the same caution as ship captains fear reefs. Maupassant shows observation and contrasts low self-esteem with excessive self-righteousness, both of which are viewed as harmful.


No less, but perhaps much more shocking, was the readership of the French writer Emile Zola. He willingly took the life of the courtesans ("The Trap", "Nana"), the inhabitants of the social soil ("The Womb of Paris") as the basis of the conspiracy, described in detail the hard life of the miners ("Germinal") and even the psychology of a mad killer ("Man-Beast")). The general literary form chosen by the author is unusual.

He combined most of his works into a twenty-volume collection, which was given the general name "Rougon-Makkara". With all the variety of actions and expressions, there is something unique that is worth including in its entirety. However, each Zola novel can be read separately, it will be no less interesting.

Jules Verne, science fiction writer

Another French writer, Jules Verne, does not need any special introduction, he became the founder of the genre that later received the definition of "science fiction". This amazing storyteller, who foresaw the appearance of nuclear submarine cruisers, torpedoes, moon rockets, and other modern attributes that didn't become the property of mankind until the 20th century, didn't think too much. Many of his fantasies today may seem naive, but the novels are easy to read and this is their main advantage.

In addition, the plots of modern Hollywood blockbusters about dinosaurs resurrected from oblivion are much less believable than the story of anti-Diluvian lizards that never became extinct on a single Latin American plateau found by brave travelers ("The Lost World"). And the novel about how the earth screamed with a giant needle from a merciless prick and went completely beyond the scope of the genre and was perceived as a prophetic parable.


The French writer Hugo is no less fascinating in his novels. His characters are in various circumstances and display vivid personality traits. Even villains (like Javert from Les Miserables or Claude Frollo from Notre Dame) have a certain charm.

Also important is the historical component of the narrative, from which the reader can easily and with interest learn many useful facts, especially about the circumstances of the French Revolution and Bonapartism in France. Jean Voljean from Les Miserables became the personification of innocent nobility and honesty.


Modern French writers and literary critics, including all of the Heminway-Fitzgerald era writers, have also done much to make humanity smarter and kinder. The 20th century did not bring Europeans decades of peace, and memories of World War I of 1914-1918 were soon brought to mind in the form of yet another global tragedy.

The French writer Exupery, a romantic, creator of the unforgettable image of the little prince and military pilot, did not stay away from the struggle of honest people around the world with fascism. The posthumous popularity of this writer in the USSR in the fifties and sixties may have been the envy of many pop stars who performed songs, including those dedicated to his memory and main character. And today the thoughts of a boy from another planet still demand kindness and responsibility for their actions.

Dumas, son and father

There were actually two of them, father and son, and both were wonderful French writers. Who does not know the famous musketeers and their loyal friend D'Artagnan? Many film adaptations glorified these characters, but none of them could convey the charm of the literary source. The fate of the prisoner of the Chateau d'If will not leave anyone indifferent ("The Count of Monte Cristo"), and other works are very interesting. They will also be useful for young people whose personal development is just beginning. There are many examples of true nobility in the novels of Dumas the father.

As for the son, he did not shame the famous surname either. The novels Doctor Servan, Three Strong Men and other works vividly highlighted the peculiarities and philistic characteristics of today's society, and The Lady of the Camellias not only enjoyed a well-deserved readership, but also inspired the Italian composer Verdi to write the opera La Traviata write. It formed the basis of her libretto.


The detective story will always be one of the most read genres. The reader is interested in everything in it - and who committed the crime, the motives and the evidence, and the inevitable exposure of the perpetrator. But detective detective quarrel. One of the best modern writers is undoubtedly Georges Simenon, the creator of the unforgettable picture of Paris Police Commissioner Megre. In itself, an artistic medium is widespread in world literature. The image of an intellectual detective with an indispensable feature of appearance and recognizable habits has been repeatedly exploited.

Megre Simenon differs from many of his “colleagues” in the friendliness and sincerity of French literature. He is sometimes ready to meet a person who has stumbled and even (oh, horror!) Violates certain formal articles of the law, while remaining true to him in the main, not in the letter, in his spirit (“Even so, the hazel becomes green").

Just a great writer.


If we digress from the last centuries and intellectually return to the modern age, then the French writer Cedric Gras, a great friend of our country, who has dedicated two books to the Russian Far East and its inhabitants, deserves attention. After seeing many exotic regions of the planet, he became interested in Russia, lived in it for many years, learned the language that will undoubtedly help him learn the notorious "mysterious soul", about which he already finished the third book on the same topic writes. Here Gra found something that he apparently lacked so much in his affluent and comfortable home. He is attracted by a "strangeness" (from the point of view of a European) of the national character, the desire of the people to be courageous, their ruthlessness and openness. For the Russian reader, the French writer Cédric Gras is particularly interested in this "external view", which is gradually becoming ours.


Perhaps there is no other French writer who is so close to the Russian heart. Much of his work is reminiscent of another great literary figure of all times and peoples - Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoyevsky. Jean-Paul Sartre's first novel, "Nausea" (many consider it the best), asserted the concept of freedom as an internal category that is not subject to external circumstances and to which a person is doomed by the very fact of his or her birth.

The author's position was confirmed not only by his novels, essays and plays, but also by his personal behavior, which demonstrated complete independence. As a man of leftist views, he nevertheless criticized the post-war policies of the USSR, which did not prevent him from rejecting the prestigious Nobel Prize for allegedly anti-Soviet publications. For the same reasons, he did not accept the Legion of Honor. Such a nonconformist deserves respect and attention, it is definitely worth reading.

Vive la France!

The article doesn't mention many other prominent French writers, not because they deserve less love and attention. You can talk about it endlessly, enthusiastically and enthusiastically, but until the reader himself picks up the book and opens it, he does not fall under the charm of wonderful lines, sharp thoughts, humor, sarcasm, slight sadness and kindness emanating from the pages. .. There are no peoples without talent, but there are undoubtedly outstanding races who have made a special contribution to the World Treasury. For those who love Russian literature, it is especially pleasant and useful to get acquainted with the works of French authors.

France is a country of poets and writers. At the end of the 19th century it was a collection center for the world's intelligentsia. All the poets, musicians and artists of the period gathered in cafes and restaurants in Paris and some other cities in the country.

Famous poets of France:

1) Was perhaps the most famous poet in France Charles Pierre Baudelaire (Charles Pierre Baudelaire). Born in Paris, he was used to art from childhood through his father, the artist François Baudelaire. I was used to going to museums and galleries and knew a lot of the artists of the time. When little Pierre was 6 years old, his father died. At the age of 11 the boy was sent to the boarding school of the city of Lyon, in 1836 he entered the College of St. Louis in Paris.

Baudelaire began writing after receiving a great inheritance from his father and began leading the life of a "slacker". He's addicted to hashish, opium. Some of his work has been devoted to the effects of these drugs on the human body, for example The Poem of Hashish, published in 1858. In a collection entitled Artificial Paradise (1860), Baudelaire wrote about his negative experiences with drug use and methods of dealing with them .

In 1857 another poetry collection of Baudelaire's works was published, entitled Flowers of Evil, which shocked readers and forced the censors to ban their publication for some time. The prose poems in the Paris Spleen Collection were published in 1860.

2) Victor Hugo became a national hero of France. The whole country is celebrating its birthday. In honor of his seventy-ninth birthday, a triumphal arch was erected on Eylau Avenue in 1881.

At the age of fifteen, Victor began to rewrite the poems of Latin poets. He was at the boarding house of St. Marguerite in Paris and dreamed of achieving world fame as a writer. The most famous literary collections of the poet are called "Autumn Leaves", "Oriental Motives".

3) No less famous poet of France was also Voltaire Francois-Marie (François Marie Voltaire). He attended the Jesuit college. His father wanted his son to be a lawyer, but François-Marie chose the path of literary creativity.

Voltaire's works have been persecuted by censors for ridiculing religion (the poem "The Secular Man"). In 1746 he was appointed court poet in the estate of Madame Pompadour. After a while he was expelled from the court and charged with political unreliability.

Voltaire's most famous work is the poem Agathocles.

4) Among the modern poets of France is the most prominent representative Andre Welter... The author of two rock operas has traveled to many countries in search of creative inspiration. He regularly organizes cultural events that take place regularly in France.

André Welter is the initiator of the oral form of poetry. His public appearances made a lasting impression on the public. The poet Serge Pei, who lives in Toulouse, is also famous for his good contact with the public.

France has always been a Mecca for the intelligentsia and the poetic elite. Today the country is home to many famous writers who attract not only with their wonderful works but also with their energy.

Sometimes even a frog snake can do something useful. In addition, until the twentieth century, they shyly hid their hideous essence from the whole world, trying to look like decent people. Generally one could read something. And here are the top 10 19th century French poets who I like.

Top 10 French poets of the 19th century among me

1. Since the time when performers on Sopilka, Tryndelkah, and Screeching Halves delighted their relatives' ears at meals or meditative fun-sadness sessions (depending on whether they were married or buried), the whole meaning of art has been in entertainment . Art has only the aim of art - the creation of an absolute masterpiece. Well, or strive for it, because there is nothing absolute in the world. And it's even strange that this simple idea was discovered by a French so late Théophile Gaultier... But as he discovered, he wrote the most romantic and adventurous of all romantic adventure novels (Captain Fracasse, not Mademoiselle de Maupin, as some perverts thought), and in the spirit of poetry, he created a collection of emails and cameos ". That Thing, IMHO, with the exception of Villon's work or some of Mallarmé's individual tricks, is the best column ever written in the "Romance-Germanic language of the inhabitants of former Gaul".

2. Having written three times fewer plays than Shakespeare, Edmond Rostand generally remained known as the author of one but what - "Cyrano de Bergerac". Although for me "Eaglet" and "Chauntecleer" are not worse at all, but "people are calling for" Anchar "- they will read" Anchar "!" (c) At first glance his work is an unrestrained song of unbridled romanticism and idealism (reaching the point of poise), but in the second and all that follows, in the same "Cyrano", and in other things there is so much bitterness Fatigue from the endless vulgarity of the world and worldly sadness that Cyrano and Napoleon II somehow died in the finale, and only Chauntecleer's offscreen scream somehow dispels the sad clouds with too shy hope ... So, in that regard, Rostand wrote :)

3.Since art has to be absolute, everything has to be absolute (and not concrete) - both form and content. Symbolism wrote a panic run of direct understanding in symbols, images and references into the realm of associations and "pale shadows on the wall" - and Stephen Mallarmé his father and the prophet rolled into one. Some of the "unbelievers" even weep for not being able to understand "the full meaning" that the Master "encoded" in his poems. In my opinion, he has tried all his life to turn tone writing into thought writing ... In general, it is harmful to overwhelm yourself, although in the end the poems turned out to be wonderful.

4. Modern man often encounters a situation in which he feels "late in time". And in the century before last this was still a novelty. But not for Alfred de Vigny - He was too late for life. He passionately dreamed of military exploits and did not take part in a single battle (it ended only in the year of his graduation from the "military"). He belonged to a high-born aristocracy at a time when their importance and influence on society were falling to the level of the pedestal. In general, universal pessimism, decay and painful death, as in his most famous work - the novel "Saint-Mar". Yes, and so were his poems - outwardly flawless, they seemed to "close the era" and already looked like something archaic and ancient when they were written ...

5. How many people do you know who have invented a new genre of literature? So bam - and no one before him wrote, and after him everyone rushed to write and scream and squeeze their elbows ... That is exactly what happened to the father-parent of prose poetry - Aloysius (Louis Jacques Napoleon) Bertrand... For world literature he is one of the authors of a work (like Homer or Cervantes), a book stylized under the "romantic Gothic" miniatures "Gaspard from the Dark". From this, as with our underwriters from Gogol's "Overcoat", all future "luminaries" of prosaic poetry emerged - Baudelaire, Mallarmé, Lautréamont and Cro ... Because when the first black square is painted on the wall, everyone immediately guesses how to get red Squares, blue circles and pink triangles lines.

6. It is sad when a person betrays their rich culture and surrenders completely and runs away to another. A Spaniard (more precisely a Latin Cuban) who has become a classic in frog poetry - what could be worse? Well, then at least write one masterpiece at a time for all time. Like Jose Maria de Heredia who became ugh, sorry sir Jose Maria de Heredia, Author of "Trophies", a collection of sonnets that describe different times and epochs through landscapes and static images. Fresh, calligraphically flawless, bizarre and, overall, adorable - like comparing a samurai in armor to a shiny sea monster. Of course, the frogs immediately made him a participant in their famous "ChSV combing" - the academy - and made him a literary classic during his lifetime. They knew what to hold on to ...

7. Well, we came to the dark, ugly esthete, the singer of universal pessimism and moral and physical decay. Charles Baudelaire... I'm not a punk lover who likes the way punks shit on stage - I just like some of the effects of punk rock music-... That's why all this "shame" and deliberately "social immorality" of the always famous "flowers of evil" has always touched me a little. A dead horse in the street, or the drug addicted fantasies of a dying tuberculosis patient in and of themselves are a shitty conspiracy, and they are only justified by verses and magnitudes that reach the flawless form. Well, something like a highly artistic and deeply aesthetic monochrome photo of a cigarette butt in a spittoon ... Sorry, but that's always Baudelaire to me.

8. About the same applies to the "Count of Lautréamont", who hid under the pseudonym "vulgar-malvinny". Isidor Marie Ducasse, the author of a collection of prose ... not even poems, but poems "Songs of Maldoror". But there is still a dense mixture of sadistic fantasies of Gothic teenagers - corpses, vampires, innocent victims, hellish devils and "senseless cruelty because of being poisoned with it". In general, the vyunosh was the forerunner of the current "garbage, frenzy and sodomy" genre. Significantly, this "miracle in every way" was born, even in an honest frog family, but still in Uruguay.

9. If we talk about bad children, where then without the "blackest sheep" of 19th century French poetry - Arthur Rimbaud... He differed in everything from his "honorable wife" in Hollywood - he was moody, malicious, smelly (in every way), weak and hideous in his weaknesses ... Cho already there - a mattress like Verlaine, who because of an assassination attempt was brought to prison on your person. And in the sense of the "creativity of poetry" he overtook the path from the sensible satirical-bilious-enchanting sketches to the touching subsequent symbolists "sound rhymes" quickly, almost at lightning speed (he lived a little and even gave up writing many years before his death) and strange phrases one after another ". In general, the full-length question is: do badly behaved children need talent, or do they really need it?

10. Against the background of all these "unfunterribbles" and other "wretched" Pierre Jean Beranger practically good-natured bourgeois look ... Well, so kind, so good, so decent. "Satire fights courageously for humanism and the cause of peace" - that is 146% about him. Beranger mercilessly scourged and burned "the vices of bourgeois society of his time" and wrote songs (they can actually be sung when such a verse comes - and many were sung) that sent socialists, anarchists and other communists into trembling ecstasy. He also worked in the unfavorable field of Bonapartism and wrote poems about "There is no kingdom for you all!" For all of this, he was banned, cut out, and even sent to prison twice. In general, the old man knew how to take someone to the cookies with a pen ...

6. KRO
10. NUVO


1. BODDLER CHARLES / 1821-1867 / 46 / Romanticism-Symbolism-Modernism / "Flowers of Evil"

His work was heavily influenced by Sainte-Beuve, Gaultier, E. Poe, Byron and Milton. He was very fond of alcohol and opium. He did not set up a school of his own, but the name Baudelaire was sacred to all symbolists. E. Poe considered him his spiritual brother.

The last few years have been marked by severe material difficulties and illnesses. He suffered from attacks of a nervous illness that led to memory loss and paralysis.

2.VERLIN PAUL / 1844-1896 / 52 / Impressionism-Symbolism (Decadence) / "Damned Poets" / "Saturn Poems"; "Galant Celebrations"; "A long time ago and recently"; "Wisdom"; "Child Song"; "Songs without words".

One of the founders of literary impressionism and symbolism. Most revered the work of Baudelaire and Mallarmé.

At the age of 19, he experienced a love crisis in a relationship with his cousin Eliza, whose unexpected death affected his entire future: alcohol has firmly entered his future.

The desire for absinthe contributed to the genesis of his life and poetry - melancholy. He married, but marriage did not bring him happiness. Later he had a passionate affection for Rimbaud - as a result: tramps, drunkenness, break with his family, attempted murder of his friend, prison. Then a passionate friendship with his student Lucien Letinois.

However, Lucien suddenly died of typhus. Next - binge, scandals, jail. Verlaine could not calm down until the end of his days, collected Rimbaud's poems, published them. He was guided by a passion: he longed to extend Rimbaud's genius, to extend it in time and to prove to everyone that his almost slavish admiration for this young monster is primarily an understanding of his comrade's extraordinary talent.

The first introduced the term "damned poets", that is, rejected and unrecognized recorders who themselves did not want to fit into the world of bourgeois success and boring propriety. He arranged literary "environments" in place. Since 1885 his talent decreased. Fifty of his poems were appreciated and preserved in their true value by their descendants.

Was the forerunner of vers libre (i.e. free verse).

500 copies of his poems were printed, and even these were not sold. But the youth of the late 1980s suddenly found him, fell in love with him and proclaimed him their leader, master, "King of Bohemia" and, after the death of Charles Lecomte de Lisle (1894), "King of Poets".

Verlaine was as musical as perhaps no other poet in France. He was "clearer" than his students. In the speeches over his grave he was already described as "great".

3. REMBO ARTURE / 1854-1891 / 37 / Symbolism (decadence) / "The cursed poets" / "The drunk ship"; Time in hell; "Enlightenment"; "In a Green Zucchini"; Sleeping in the cave; "Shame".

Born in northern France and died in Marseille at the age of 37. Despite all the originality, Rimbaud initially follows in Villon's footsteps, Hugo, his "god" - Baudelaire - competes with them. Rimbaud's lyrical legacy is small. He started writing at the age of 15 and gave up at 19.

His life has become a myth. He ran away from home four times, tried to get along with the Communards, composed and sent poems to Gauthier, Verlaine.

In poetry he blasphemers, ridicules everyone, hates the Church, is ready to parody earlier and modern poetry. In the end, Verlaine invited the talented young man to Paris, where their romance begins, which later broke the elder's life and tortured the younger one.

The affair lasted 1.5 years and ended with the infamous Brussels shot at Rimbaud and Verlaine prison. Rimbaud refused to write, believing it was enough to make you think. Valerie will soon follow a similar path.

However, Valerie's philosophy was primarily a collective and harmonizing philosophy, and he returned to creativity. Rimbaud's philosophy was as self-destructive as anything in his life.

After Rimbaud broke up with Verlaine, he stopped writing and began a nomadic life. As a result, he ends up in a hospital bed and dies of burns.

The famous painting by Henri Fantin-Latour "The corner of the table" shows 8 poets, including Verlaine and Rimbaud.

4. MALLARME STEPHANE / 1842-1898 / 56 / Symbolism (decadence) / "Herodias"; "Funeral toast on Gauthier, Baudelaire, Poe, Verlaine"; The Fall of the Faun.

Baudelaire had a strong influence on his work. Mallarmé admired E. Poe. His work is characterized by two periods: "Parnassian" (60s) and "Symbolist" (80s - 90s). Everyone spoke of the "darkness" of his poetic language. In the treatise "What is Art?"

L. Tolstoy quotes Mallarmé's poem as an example of a work that is completely meaningless. In his Paris homeland, he arranged literary evenings for young poets on Tuesdays. His most famous student is Paul Valéry. He had problems in his relations with A. France, who spoke out against the publication of "Faun" in the "Contemporary Parnassus" collection.

Together with Dostoevsky, he proved to be a forerunner of existential literature. The late Mallarmé is perhaps the "darkest" of the French copywriters.

He suffered from bronchitis for over 20 years. He died of bleeding from the lungs.

5. VALERY PAUL / 1871-1945 / 74 / Modern Symbolism / "Album of old poems"; "Charm".

Favorite students and followers of Mallarmé. He fought for "pure", ie "absolute" poetry. Rilke was delighted with his poems. Communicated with A. Gide, Rainier. He persistently did not want to be published, like his first mentor, Mallarmé.

In 1924 he was elected chairman of the PEN club. After the death of A. France (who was treated negatively because of his attitude towards Mallarmé), the chair at the French Academy passed to Valerie.

Survived the war. He died on July 20, 1945, and General de Gaulle made his funeral an international event.

6. CROW CHARLES 1842-1888 / 46 / Symbolism (Decadence) / "The Cursed Poets" / "Green Hour"; Smoked herring; "Necklace of the Claws".

Only one of his collections, "Sandal Box", was published during his lifetime. Many of his poems are set to music. He was interested in science. He shared literary works with scientific works and alcohol. His poems were published, but rarely.

One of the most striking figures of the Parisian Bohemia of the 70-80s.

He died of total inconsistency of internal organs in total poverty.

7. CORBIER TRISTAN / 1845-1875 / 30 / Symbolism (Decadence) / "Damned Poets" / "Epitaph"; "Clock"; "Paris".

Like many other talented French poets, he was discovered by Verlaine, who had dedicated an article to him in 1883. During his lifetime, Corbière managed to publish only one book of poems, "Yellow Love".

The desperate and tragic love for the Italian actress determined his entire future life. He thought he was worthless, ugly, only able to read books and be creative. It is hard to find another poet who would mock himself with such devotion.

As a child, he contracted rheumatism, which turned into consumption, and this disease brought him to the grave at the age of 30.

8. ROLLINA MAURICE / 1846-1903 / 57 / Symbolism (Decadence) / "Damned Poets" / "Neuroses"; "Abyss".

He was a typical figure of decadence with the same extremes in character and creativity that characterized the "damned poets". After he had achieved the first successes and celebrities, he threw himself headlong into the life of a bohemian, but did not get drunk like Cro; disappointed in everything and everyone, but not sunk to the bottom like Verlaine; stepped aside, but did not break with poetry like Rimbaud did.

His father was a close friend of J. Sand, who played a significant role in the fate of Maurice. At first he mimicked her in everything and dedicated her first book, On the Moorlands, to her memory.

He became known as a singer and pianist and above all as an interpreter of songs based on Baudelaire's verses. He felt himself to be a direct heir to the ideas of Baudelaire and E. Poe.

He was a typical Baudelaire - borrowed Baudelaire's pessimism.

His wife left him and he fell into black melancholy.

He suffered from a mental illness (painful, but perhaps not as long-term as that of Art Nouveau) that brought his departure closer. Health problems have clearly evolved into a mental illness.

In 1903 he tried to commit suicide twice and died at the end of the year.

9. RISHPIN JAN 1849-1926 / 77 / Symbolism (decadence) / "The cursed poets" / "Song of the tramps"; "Ballad of the Lords of the Tramps"; "Weasel"; "Migratory Birds".

Anarchism and a thirst for adventure were not alien to him. He changed many professions, sang songs of his own composition, went with a gypsy camp through half the country. His bosom friends were the heroes of the Latin Quarter taverns - Verlaine, Rimbaud. Nouveau, Rollina, Cro.

He was a man of remarkable strength and irrepressible energy. Many loved him, even Flaubert. He glorified the spirit of decadence. From the second half of the 1980s, however, his talent succumbed to the spirit of the "commercial" literature of the time.

He was the author of 9 collections of poetry, numerous novels, including historical ones, more than two dozen plays and even scripts (he found the era of silent cinema and starred in some films himself). In 1913 (during his lifetime) one of the streets of the XVI. Paris district named after the poet.

Over time, he became a fully respected figure in French literature and culture.

In 1908 he was elected a member of the French Academy.

He died in recognition and in oblivion. At the time, few people remembered his poems and prose, but they sang his poems without knowing who their author was.

10. NUVO ZHERMIN / 1851-1920 / 69 / symbolism (decadence) / "damned poets" / "love teaching"; "Valentine's Day".

He met Rimbaud when he was 19 and Nouveau when he was 22. Rimbaud went to London and Nuvo followed him ruthlessly.Just as ruthlessly he held out his hand to Verlaine, to whom Rimbaud had introduced him.

At one time, Nouveau was the only thread that separated friends forever. During this time you - Verlaine-Rimbaud-Nouveau - were represented almost as a poet over three people, as a poetic trinity.

In May 1875, Rimbaud broke with his previous life and began a new one, and Art Nouveau turned to Catholicism under the influence of Verlaine. Which will ultimately lead him to the inevitable end of most decadents - conflict with peace and loneliness.

Art Nouveau, which tends towards mysticism, leaves worldly life in religious elevation, in contrast to Verlaine, who descends from religion and lofty thoughts to the bottom of life. Nuvo goes through several mental crises and ends up in an asylum. He begins a long-term pilgrimage around the world, prohibits the publication of his books, wanders, Rimbaud's shadow leads him to the east.

Two of his books, prepared by his friends, came out without his knowledge.

A year after his death, a volume of his poems was published that opened the almost unknown poet to a completely new literary world that the surrealists wanted to conquer. It turned out that he was more of a professional poet than a professional beggar.


KRO 46
VAL 74

BODLER. Photos from the internet