Who controls all of our money

Issue and circulation

Each country organizes the supply of cash differently. How depends, among other things, on the following factors:

  • the structure of the central bank and its branches
  • the commercial banks and their branch networks
  • the legal framework
  • the payment habits of the population
  • the infrastructure of the money and valuables transport companies operating on the market and
  • the geographical conditions, the history and the traditions of the countries

Despite these national differences, the Eurosystem continues to strive for greater harmonization of the cash services offered by the national central banks of the euro area. For this purpose, the parties involved, such as commercial banks, money and valuables transport companies and people who work with cash, are consulted at national and European level. Greater harmonization and integration will result in more advantages for those involved from the single currency.

More information on this topic can be found in the ECB's annual report.

Eligible or not?

Banknotes have to be real and of good quality for people to have confidence in them. This is why the national central banks of the euro area check the banknotes for authenticity and fitness using fully automated banknote processing machines.

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