Are there unsafe areas in Yangon Myanmar

Myanmar, Union, officialPye Tawngsu Myanma Naingngan, short form Myanma Pye, formerly Burma, English Burma, republic in South East Asia. The national territory borders in the northeast China, Laos and Thailand, to the south to the Andaman Sea and to the west to the Bay of Bengal, Bangladesh and India. The coastal area is also called Untermyanmar (Unterbirma), the inland Obermyanmar (Oberbirma). The total area of ​​the country covers 676 552 square kilometers.

The dominant topographical features of Myanmar are a horseshoe shaped one Mountain range and the central Irrawaddy basin enclosed by it. The mountain range is formed by two mountain ranges running in a north-south direction. In the west (from north to south) are the chains of the Patkai, Chin and Arakan Mountains, which separate Myanmar from the Indian subcontinent and reach a height of 3,053 meters; in the east is the extensive, karstified, an average of 900 meters high Shan Plateau, which is continued to the south in the direction of Thailand through the Karen and Tenasserim mountains. Both mountain ranges are connected to each other in the north; At the northern tip of Myanmar lies the country's highest peak, the 5,881 meter high Hkakabo Razi, which is also the highest mountain in Southeast Asia.

The predominantly narrow, elongated Irrawaddy Basin reaches in the delta of the Irrawaddy a width of about 320 kilometers. The very fertile Delta plains have a total area of ​​approximately 46,600 square kilometers and represent the economic core of the country. The coasts of the country are rocky and lined with numerous islands, they extend over a length of 1,930 kilometers. Myanmar has a large number of excellent natural harbors. The most fertile soils are found in a narrow strip of alluvial land on the Bay of Bengal, where mountain rivers run through the country, as well as in the wide river valleys and in the alluvial areas of the Irrawaddy. These mighty layers form a wide, fertile belt, which is particularly suitable for the due to the abundant rainfall Rice cultivation suitable.

Most of Myanmar has tropical Climate. There are three seasons: one hot and humid Season from mid-May to October, a cooler season from late October to mid February and a very hot season from mid-February to early May. During the hot and humid season, which is characterized by the southwest monsoon, it rains daily. During this period most of the annual Rainfall, in southern Myanmar up to over 5,100 millimeters (on the coast), in the lowlands on the lee side of the mountains sometimes only 500 millimeters. During this period the temperature in Mandalay is up to 32 ° C, in Yangon around 27 ° C, and towards the end in many areas an average of over 37 ° C. In the cool season the January temperature is 20 ° C (Mandalay) and 25 ° C (Yangon). Temperatures are generally lower in the mountainous countries.

Extensive forests cover 52.3 percent of the land area of ​​Myanmar. There are large populations in areas with high annual rainfall Timber, especially the economically important teak stocks. There are also rubber trees, cinchona trees, acacias, bamboo, iron trees, coconut palms, betel nut palms and, mainly in the highlands of the north, oaks, pines and many types of rhododendrons. Tropical fruits such as citrus fruits, bananas, mangoes and guavas grow in the coastal areas; you can also find mangrove vegetation there. In the arid regions, on the other hand, only sparse, species-poor vegetation grows.

In the jungles of Myanmar there are tiger and Leopards as particularly remarkable animals. Among the larger native mammals, especially in the highlands of Myanmar, one finds Elephants, Rhinos, buffalo, Wild boar and several species of deer and antelope. Domesticated elephants are mainly used as workhorses in the timber industry. Frequently seen are also Gibbons and other species of monkeys, wild cats, Fruit bats (please refer Bats) and Tapirs. There are also around a thousand known bird species in Myanmar, including parrots, peacocks, pheasants, crows, herons and rice finches (Padda-Species). Among the reptiles are Crocodiles, Geckos, cobras, pythons and turtles. Edible freshwater fish are also plentiful.

The local population is too over two-thirds out Burmese. In addition, the country is inhabited by several indigenous minorities, each with their own language and culture. The numerically most significant of these are the Shan (nine Percent) that Karen (seven Percent) that Mon (two Percent) that Chin or Tschin (two Percent) and the Kachin or Katschin (two Percent). Each of these groups forms its own, partly autonomous state (State). The Shan, who are related to the Thai, live mainly on the border with Thailand; the Karen in Untermyanmar. The Mon or Mon-Khmer, the first ethnic group whose immigration to Myanmar was known, have their main settlement area in the delta area of ​​the Irrawaddy and gradually mix with the Burmese majority living there.

Those with ethnic groups of the neighboring indian State of Assam related Chin are located in the mountainous countries in the north-west of the country and live primarily from fishing and hunting. In the Chin Society the individual groups of absolute Rulers ruled, which is usually the highest priest of traditional religion. The Kachin, a mountain people, live mainly in the extreme north of Myanmar on the chinese Border and are related to the Chinese. The rulership of them is regulated by inheritance law. In addition, there are still significant, out India and China immigrant minorities, especially the Rohingya, who make up four percent of the population.

The population of Myanmar is about 42.2 million (2002), which results in a population density of 62 inhabitants per square kilometer, one of the lowest in Southeast Asia. 72 percent of the population lives in rural areas; most of the urban areas are basically larger villages that make a living from agriculture. Life expectancy is average 55,4 Years.

The country is inMyanmar yourself and in the seven States (States)Chin, Kachin, Karen, Kayah, Mon, Arakan and Shan structured. Myanmar in turn consists of seven provinces (Divisions): Irawadi, Magwe, Mandalay, Pegu, Rangoon, Sagaing and Tenasserim.

Rangoon, now called Yangon, is the capital and at the same time the most important seaport of the country (4 A million inhabitants). Mandalay (532,949 inhabitants), located in central Myanmar, is an important trading center. Other important cities are Moulmein (219 961) on the Gulf of Martaban and Akyab (107 621), a major seaport on the Bay of Bengal.

The official language is Burmese, which is used by the please refer Sino-Tibetan Languages ​​heard and from about two Thirds the population is spoken to. The Burmese alphabet relies on that Sanskrit and on a form of the alphabet of the Pali-Language in which the sacred scriptures of Buddhism are transmitted (please refer Indian languages). Round 15 Percent of the population speak Shan and Karen, the remaining part speaks Mon; educated Burmese also speak English. There are also a considerable number of chinese speaking People in the country.

over85 Percent of all Burmese are Buddhists, most of which the Theravada-Direction belong. There are also small Hindu, Muslim and Christian denominations.

In 1956 the government started a social security program for medical care. It is funded by employers, employees, and the government.

Medical care expanded on a large scale, and from 1964 the number of infirmaries, pharmacies and hospitals increased steadily. There are 1 573 residents on a hospital bed, and a doctor is available for 3 367 residents. Myanmar has long struggled with the occurrence of leprosy, tuberculosis and sexually transmitted diseases. In contrast, the number of malaria cases has fallen sharply as a result of measures supported by the World Health Organization (WHO). The number of AIDS (AIDS: acquired immune deficiency syndrome) sick people increased sharply in the early 1990s (1999: 530,000 infected people).

The Burmese civilization is largely from indian Influenced. However, the Burmese have certain Indian institutions like that Caste system Not accepted. They also kept their language and literature.

4.1Education and school system

Attending school isfree. Attending primary school is compulsory and lasts 5 years. Classes are held in Burmese. English is the second language of instruction in many secondary schools. The Literacy level lies by 91,2 Percent.

The largest universities in Myanmar are the University of Rangoon (1920) and the University of Mandalay (1925). Other higher education institutions include the State Schools of Arts, Music and Drama in Rangoon and Mandalay and the Defense Services Academy (1955) in Maymyo. At the universities and colleges of Myanmar are 6 Percent of the population of the appropriate age enrolled.

As such, public libraries and museums are limited in number in Myanmar; however, the thousands serve Buddhist temple as storage locations ffor books and religious objects. The most famous pagoda is the Shwedagon-Pagoda in Rangoon. The National Museum of Art and Archeology (1952) is located in Yangon. Other state museums are in Kyaukpyu, Mandalay and Moulmein.

Myanmar is home to one of the richest collections of Buddhist art and culture in Asia. Due to the numerous temples, Myanmar was also known as "Land of the Golden Pagodas" known.

Secular (non-religious) art is rare in Myanmar. Most of the sculptures and paintings are limited to a Buddhist context. A predominant Indian influence can be seen in architecture as well as in other forms of art expression. The Craft is known for his lacquer work and weaving silk. A popular form of entertainment is Art Volksoper(Pwe) with light content and music and dance.

The earliest evidence of Burmese literature was found on stone inscriptions dating back to 1113 AD. A rich tradition of historical and religious poetry developed in the 15th century. Prose works did not gain importance until the late 19th century, when the resurgence of Burmese nationalism led to a sharp increase in novels and plays.

All postal, telegraph, telephone, and broadcast systems in Myanmar are state-owned. Five daily newspapers appear with a total circulation of 449,000 copies.

Myanmar was until Coup of 1962, in which the previous form of government was abolished, governed according to the 1948 constitution. In 1974 a new constitution was proclaimed which remained in force until another coup in 1988 and formed the basis for the organization of the government. Since the last coup it has been Martial law imposed and all state organs temporarily suspended.

5.1Executive and Legislative

According to the 1974 Constitution, the main holder of the executive (executive power) is the presidentwho is also chairman of the 29-member State Council. The State Council and the Council of Ministerschaired by the Prime Minister will be held by the People's Assembly (Pyithu Hluttaw) elected. It is set up as a unicameral parliament and is Myanmar's most important legislative body. After the coup in 1988, it had a 21-member membership Military government(State Law and Order Restoration Council, SLORC) the legislative and executive Powers of attorney in the state. In November 1997 the 19-member took over State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) this function. Parliament has not yet started its work.

According to the constitution, the legal system is structured centrally. The highest court of justice is the council of people's judges elected by the people's assembly, and a council of people's advocates is responsible for prosecution. Lower courts include state, provincial, and city courts. In the military coup of 1988 all of them were Civil courts temporarily except force set.

Myanmar is made up of Rangoon centralistic ruled. The country is in seven provinces inhabited by Myanmar (Burmese) (Divisions) and seven states inhabited by national minorities (States) structured. According to the constitution, there are people's councils chaired by an executive committee, which are elected at all local, regional and state levels.

After the coup d'état of 1962, the Revolutionary Council urged all political parties to merge into a single party, the Burma Socialist Program Party (BSPP). In the 1974 constitution, the BSPP is recognized as the only legal political party. In the first free elections in May 1990, the National League for Democracy (NLD) as the strongest party.

The armed forces of Myanmar totaled 344,000 men (2001). There are also paramilitary units: a People's Police and a People's Militia. The entire government is in the hands of the military.

Myanmar is primarily one Agricultural land. 63 percent of the workforce is employed in agriculture, 12 percent in industry and 25 percent in the service sector. The country's industrial development has been driven forward since the 1960s and 1970s; before World War II there were almost no industrial enterprises at all. A major goal of the government is to modernize the entire economy and develop it from a focus on agriculture and handicrafts to a broader base. Many private companies have been nationalized as part of this policy. The share of services in the gross domestic product (GDP) is 31.1 percent.

Much of the modernization of the economy is related to the tourism. 1996 the Myanmar government proclaimed the year of tourism. There were calls for boycotts internationally Human rights violations, because the tourist expansion of the country was forced through forced labor and resettlement.

The number of people in employment is around 25.4 million. There are few workers who are organized in unions; Labor law disputes are decided by a specially responsible government committee.

15.4 percent of the total area of ​​Myanmar is used for agriculture and plantation farming. Myanmar is one of the leading rice producers in the world, with the majority in the area of ​​the Irrawaddy-delta is grown. Other important agricultural products that are mainly grown on small farms in the lowlands of the interior are corn, cotton, peanuts, vegetables, millet, nuts, sesame, sugar cane and tobacco. The share of agriculture in GDP is 59.9 percent (1999).

6.2Forestry and fishing

The forests of Myanmar represent an important source of income, especially due to the significant stocks teak wood - Myanmar has the world's largest population of teak trees - and the cultivation of rubber trees for the production of natural rubber. In total there are around 250 economically important tree species, 50 of which are felled for trade. However, the great demand on the world market for precious woods, especially teak, resulted in large quantities of teak trees being produced within a short period of time cut down were without that at the same time a systematic, sustainable Reforestation was operated. Accordingly, the deforestation rate rose to a worrying 1.39 percent (1990-2000) percent per year. In addition to rubber, other important forestry products are quinine and catechu, a product made from acacias (Acacia catechu) recovered tanning agent.

Fish are caught for personal consumption and are the main source of protein in the population's diet. Previously, freshwater fish were preferred, but the government has been promoting marine fish fishing for some time.

There are extremely rich deposits of various mineral resources in Myanmar. Most of the mines are in the mountainous areas in the west of the country and on the Tenasserim coast. Be here Gemstones how jade, Rubies and Sapphires as well as metallic mineral resources such as iron, copper, nickel, silver, lead and zinc as well as tungsten and tin. There are also large natural gas reservoirs.

Rice mills and the processing of agricultural products are the main branches of the industry. To stimulate the economy, the state set up a steel mill, a jute spinning mill, a brick and tile factory and other businesses. There are also sawmills, oil and sugar refineries, oil presses for vegetable oils, grain mills and cotton mills. The share of industry in GDP is 8.9 percent.

6.5Currency and banking

The currency unit is the kyat to 100 pyas. All banks were nationalized in 1963. 1969 the unification of the individual banks took place in the Union of Burma Bank. This handles banking transactions, regulates the circulation of money and represents the government on banking and currency issues.

All foreign trade is under state control, but private-sector activities have been encouraged since 1990 and companies can now do business directly. The main exports are teak, rice, legumes, cotton, ores, metals and rubber. The main imports are machines, transport equipment, chemical products, textiles and food. Myanmar's main trading partners are Japan, Singapore, Indonesia, Germany, Great Britain and the United States. In 1991, the United States imposed a trade embargo on persistent serious human rights violations.

The staterailroad has a total track length of 3,336 kilometers. The railway lines connect all major cities in the country, but have no connections with railways outside of Myanmar. The Inland waterways, which in total consist of around 5,800 kilometers of navigable rivers and canals, are far more important as transport routes than the road network. Many large cities are located on the rivers and are also river ports. Main artery Myanmar's is that Irrawaddy; in addition, Chindwin and Saluen are also navigable in sections. The road network covers a length of 28,200 kilometers; 12 percent are paved (1998). Several roads cross the national borders; Particularly noteworthy is the Birma road to China. A national airline provides the national and international flight service.

Myanmar has great hydropower potential. 31.44 percent of the electrical energy produced is through Hydropower plants generated, 68.56 percent supply thermal power plants that run on coal or oil.

Myanmar's early history is from Waves of immigration different from Tibet and China indigenous peoples who the Irrawaddy moved along south and away from the social and political institutions that are across the Sea route out India came, were coined. The first immigrants were them Monthat probably around 3000 BC Chr. arrived. They settled in Central Burma, in the Irrawaddy Delta and further east on the coast of the Bay of Bengal. They set up irrigation systems and established commercial and cultural contacts with India, but also maintained a loose connection with other Mon civilizations in the valley Menam in Siam (today Thailand) upright. The Pyu followed much later. They reached the area via the west bank of the Irrawaddy and founded their capital in the area of ​​today's Prome in 628 AD. Burmese reached the Irrawaddy in the middle of the 9th century and incorporated the Pyu and Mon empires. Later came waves of Shan and Kachin immigration who, together with the Karen, the residents of the area, played an important role in the development of the country.

The firstunited Empire became from the king Anoratha, the of 1044 to 1077 ruled, in Pagan founded in Upper Burma. It reached its heyday under his son Kyanzitthathat of 1084 to 1112 prevailed. The empire stretched from the arid zone in the north to the subdued Mon centers Pegu and Thaton in the Irrawaddy-Delta and expanded its political and religious ties by sea to after Ceylon (now Sri Lanka). The state was built on the model of Hindu kingdoms. The royal court, located in the capital, became through the taxation of the individual households or through compulsory labor in the of Myothugis (Administrators of settlements with inheritable rights) financed by governed villages. Over time, increasingly larger parts of the country were given to Buddhist monasteries in the form of so-called slave villages to maintain monasticism (Sangha) made available. Kingship was legitimized by both Hindu ideology and the king's role as defender of Buddhism. During the period of peace, which lasted around 250 years, the pious rulers had a large number of pagodas built for the Pagan is famous today.

The incursion ofMongols under Kublai-khan in the year 1287 sat the empire Pagan a end and a tumultuous time began: Upper Burma led an uncertain existence between the supremacy of the Shan and tributary relationships with China, while sub-company came back under the rule of the Mon (with the capital Pegu).

In the second quarter of the 16th century originated in the principality of Toungoo (after the still existing city north of Pegu) in central Burma a new Burmese dynasty. With the support Portuguese More adventurous, the Toungoo dynasty established an empire under its third ruler - king Bayinnaung, who ruled from 1551 to 1581 - became a united but not very prosperous empire. After his death Succession disputes, Portuguese advances on the coast, the Thai in the east and the equestrian people of the Manipuri in the west to the decline of the dynasty. The empire itself, however, lasted until the middle of the 18th century and was able to maintain itself through a solid administrative and legal system at the central and regional level. In 1752, however, the dynasty was finally overthrown by a Mon uprising.

7.3Konbaung Dynasty and Anglo-Burmese Wars

Increasing economic and political pressure from European powers was the backdrop for the rise and fall of the last Burmese dynasty. During the 17th and early 18th centuries, the area was the focus of more conflicting areas Spheres of interest the British, Dutch and French peoplethat are in Syriam (in the Proximity of today's Rangoon) and established trading posts in other places along the coast. 1752 founded the tribal leader Alaungpaya the Konbaung dynasty, which first restored Burmese rule in Ava and later in the delta region. He fought the British at the Negrais trading post and launched an attack against the Thai, whose capital Ayutthaya later by his son, King Hsinbyushin, who of 1763 to 1776 ruled destroyed has been. The king's other son, Bodawpaya, lost control of Siam, but brought Arakan, a rich coastal province on the border with Bengal, under his control.

At the beginning of the 19th century, political tensions due to an independence movement in Arakan were exacerbated by the military successes of the Burmese general Maha Bandula in Assam. The British then launched a sea offensive on Burmese territory in the 1st British-Burmese War (1824 to 1826). The Yandabo Peace Treaty gave the British control of Arakan in the west and Tenasserim in the east of the Irrawaddy Delta. Rice cultivation developed in these two areas under British rule and the relative political stability led to strong population growth. This was repeated in the other delta areas, which were annexed by the British after the 2nd British-Burmese War (1852). Economic and political interests brought about by the Anglo-French rivalry were strengthened in this area, accelerated the incorporation of the remaining areas of Burma into British territory after Mandalay fell in the 3rd British-Burmese War (1885-1886). Burma then became a province within British Indiaand the capital was moved from the royal city Mandalay to the port city Rangoon. The expansion of the British sphere of influence met with increasing resistance from the local population, and every step of annexation was inevitably followed by a period of pacification. Over time, however, British rule brought an extensive one modernization the administration and des Social affairs with itself, whereas previously the country was stifled and through a policy of isolation, with the exception of the modest efforts of King Mindon, the founder of Mandalay Court intrigues had almost been ruined.

Burmese culture, now hidden under the cloak of colonial rule, consisted of three pillars: the language, in which elements from Mon and Pali are fused; the Theravada-Buddhism, the out Sri Lanka came and dealt with rituals of the native, animistic religion (Nat)mingled, and finally the rural culture of the Rice farmers. Under the colonial rule the close connection between government and religion as well as the monastic orders were dissolved, and the Monastery schools, through whose effect more men were able to read and write in Burma than in England at that time, lost more and more of their importance since English became the language of the social strata. However, Burmese culture persisted in the Magical world of Theater(Pwe), in commitment to Buddhism, the Natural religions and on in the language of the peasantry.

The appointment ofRangoon to the new capital led to immigration a large number of Indians to Burma. Rangoon thus became the center of an administrative system that was also extended to the hinterland, where provincial administrators (District Officers) Ensuring law and order, collecting taxes and speaking justice. After opening the country to the world market, Burma became the world's leading main exporter for rice. Production rose from 0.5 million tons before the fall of Mandalay to two million tons at the turn of the century and further to three million tons at the beginning of World War II. British rule and the associated economic changes led to the dissolution of social structures and the emergence of a nationalist movement. The followers of this movement used modern institutions like that Young Men’s Buddhist Association as well as student strikes and political participation in partial self-government in support of their demand for immediate reforms - including separation from India - and later full reforms independence. In the countryside, the conservative unrelated to the nationalist movement won Saya-san-Movement many supporters, but the peasant uprising from 1930 to 1932 was put down.

The political leaders who eventually brought the capital and country together into a truly independent Burma began their political careers as Student leaderwho got the title Thakin (Master) gave; one of the most famous Thakin- Leader was U Aung San. The Thakin movement raised an army to liberate Burma Burma Independence Army (BIA); this supported the successful occupation of Burma by Japan in 1942 during the Second World War. Towards the end of the war, this independence movement took advantage of the tensions caused by the Japanese occupation and at the same time the weakness of the government installed by Japan and served Japanese rule as an anti-fascist freedom league People (Anti-Fascist People’s Freedom League, AFPFL) resistance.

After the war, the British returning to Burma realized that the AFPFL, chaired by the former student leader and head of the BIA, Aung San, incorporated almost all of the political power of the local population. In lengthy negotiations with Great Britain, representatives of the AFPFL reached 1948 ultimately the state independence Burma. They also forced fringe groups like the Shan and the Karen, who actually had a special protective relationship with the British, to be included in a kind of state of their own. In the April 1947 elections, the AFPFL, chaired by Aung San, won an overwhelming majority in the Constituent Assembly. In July 1947 U saw, the nationalist-minded political one Opponent Aung Sans, this and six ministers of the new government to murder. Subsequently, U Nu, a former student leader and foreign minister of Ba Maw's wartime government, took over the leadership of both the AFPFL and the government.

7.5.1Democratic phase

After Burma was granted independence, the U Nu government faced a number of politishear and more ethnic Riots that lasted for the next three decades (i.e. until the 1970s). During the 1950s, a Karen uprising was put down and communist rebels were forced to retreat to the mountains. In the following years, Burma operated a strictly non-aligned Foreign policy. At the domestic political level, economic reconstruction has begun with multilateral foreign aid. In the elections from 1951 to 1952 and 1956, the government of the AFPFL was re-elected. In 1958, however, the split in the party required a year and a half military interim government. This government under general Ne win tightened administrative discipline to encourage the modernization of the country and curbed separatist tendencies in the Shan states. In the 1960 election, the faction won the AFPFL under the leadership of U Nu one overwhelmingElection victory, which is mainly due to the recognition of his personal piety was due. However, U Nu's return to power was short-lived. His promotion of Buddhism as the state religion and his tolerance of ethnic separatism led to a bloodless coup led by General Ne win in March 1962.

During the sixties and seventies, General Ne Win tried a powerful one totalitarian To build a government, to obtain the approval of the Burmese people for this and to maintain the country's autonomy at the level of world politics. The nationalization the economy in the first twelve years of his tenure resulted in one decline agricultural production and exports, which only slowly got going again after liberalization at the end of the 1970s. In 1974 a new constitution was proclaimed according to which power in the state was transferred from the Military Revolutionary Council to a popular assembly led by Ne Win and other former military leaders through a referendum and election of a unity party. As U thant, a politician from the time of democracy and Secretary General the United Nations (UN), died and the body 1974 was transferred to Burma, student unrest broke out from time to time.

Through riotsmore ethnic Minorities that broke out in the states of Kachin and Shan were large areas of the country including the Burmese portion of the Golden triangle (one of the main production areas of the World opium market) still out of state control. The uprising, led by the Burma Communist Party, was officially supported by China. U Nu fled to Thailand and tried to organize the overthrow of Ne Win's government from there. In 1980, however, he was able to return to Burma as a private individual. In 1981 Ne Win resigned, and San Yu, a retired general, succeeded him as president. However, Ne Win remained chairman of the ruling unity party Burma Socialist Program Party (BSPP).

In the period after World War II, Burma was able to record a foreign policy success, as the country succeeded in Not in major political conflicts in the region, such as the Vietnam Warto get involved. During the government's relations with the People's Republic China entertained, but at the same time she tried that autonomy sustain the country by reducing reliance on foreign assistance and even postponing the start of membership in the Asian Development Bank. UNu was in equal measure how Nehru in India, Wetter in Egypt, Tito in the former Yugoslavia and other political leaders actively involved in the non-aligned To give states political weight in the Cold War. However, Burma left this group of states in 1979 to protest against its pro-Soviet tendencies, but rejoined it in August 1992.

7.5.3Rebellion and military regime

Anti-government uprisings in March and June 1988 caused the resignation of Ne win as chairman of the Unity Party, which subsequently led to a period of political instability. At times, the riot police took over the rule, leading to riots that killed thousands. After that, a coalition between the civilian government and the military came to power, that between the military and the emerging Opposition movement around Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, daughter of the former leader of the Thakin-Movement (see above: British rule) U Aung Santried to convey. In September General Saw Maung, chief of staff under Ne Win, emerged from a bloody power struggle as chairman of a military government, the so-called State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC); this military government was ultimately accountable to Ne Win. In June 1989 the country was officially in Union of Myanmar renamed, and the name of the capital was from Rangoon in Yangon changed. In the parliamentary elections in May 1990, the first free Elections for 30 years, won the opposition party National League for Democracy an overwhelming election victory, but the military government (SLORC) has so far allowed the people's assembly Notto meet. In October 1991 the Nobel Peace Prize at Daw Aung San Suu Kyi awarded since July 1989 with no connection to the outside world House arrest was standing. The ailing Saw Maung was appointed by General in April 1992 Than Shwe replaced at the head of the SLORC.

In January 1993 the SLORC passed a convention that was supposed to ensure the permanent participation of the military in government; however, the convention has not been documented. The SLORC also tried to encourage foreign investment in the country to help tackle the country's economic crisis. During 1994, Aung San Suu Kyi became involved in closed negotiations with the SLORC; however, she continued to decline the offer to lift her house arrest if she went into exile. In February 1995, SLORC associations took over the Karen territory. In July of that year, Aung San Suu Kyi's house arrest was unexpectedly lifted; she then resumed talks with the SLORC and the military leadership. In July 1996, serious human rights violations became known again. The rulers' pressure on the opposition continued unabated.

end1996 took place a summit of the heads of government ASEANStates in Jakarta. It was decided to accept Myanmar and Laos as full members of the alliance. At a meeting of the foreign ministers of the ASEAN countries in the Malaysian capital Kuala Lumpur in July 1997, the admission of the two countries came into force.

In November 1997 the SLORC disbanded; the new military government was constituted under the name State Peace and Development Council (SPDC). On the announcement of Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, To allow the parliament elected in 1990 to meet, the military junta responded in September 1998 Arrests by opposition members.

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